How indigenous seeds are helping rural women in Teso, Acholi fight food insecurity
Hanging by Vicky Lukwiya’s fireplace are several stocks of indigenous seeds and grains like sorghum, millet and maize among others.
Maize cobs hanging on the roof of Lukwiya ‘s Kitchen.
Lukwiya uses the fireplace in her kitchen at her home in Ariaga central, Laroo-Pece Division in Gulu city, to preserve her indigenous seeds for the next planting season.
Stocks of sorghum hanging by the fire place for preservation.
“The fireplace keeps them warm and safe from weevils. Even though they are dry they can still be attacked by weevils because of the changes in the environment and the air,” she said.
She adds, “We also keep seeds and grains in gourds at the fireplace and they can last three years without them getting attacked by weevils. Our forefathers used to keep seeds like this in the gourds under the fireplace or out in the open.”
A gourd containing indigenous seeds.
Lukwiya is the chairperson of local seed farmers in Gulu and Omoro district under the Eastern and Southern Africa Small-scale Farmers’ Forum-ESAFF, a Non-Governmental Organization that is implementing a Food Sovereignty project through resisting Genetically Modified Foods-GMOs.
The over 700 local seed farmers are currently constructing a community seed bank at Ongako Sub county in Omoro district which they intend to use to store indigenous seeds.
“We are keeping indigenous seeds which are going to disappear. You disappear with seeds, there will be no food in homes. We call this community seed banks because it’s the community that collect the seeds. No one else,”
Lukwiya says its high time government incorporated indigenous seeds and crops when supplying to farmers under programs like Operation Wealth Creation.
“The cassava which government has been giving farmers takes six months to mature and it gets rotten leaving people in hunger so many rejected it and have gone back to indigenous cassava (okonyo-ladak) which takes two years to mature but you can keep harvesting it for three years, she said.”
Even though, it is dry season, Lukwiya is still harvesting green vegetables like amaranths, cherry tomatoes, yams, spider plant (akeyo) and cow pea leaves from her small garden right in front of her kitchen.
This is because the indigenous food crops are more resistant to dry weather, she says.
Vicky Lukwiya, the chairperson local seed farmers in Gulu and Omoro districts harvesting cocoa yams in her garden.
At one time Uganda’s food basket, Acholi and Teso sub regions, are facing threats to food security, as the shift to improved seeds affects farmers ability to sustain production.
The need to buy planting material every season and unpredictable prices for farm produce means that many farmers may not earn enough to afford seed for the next crop.
For this reason, farmers like Lukwiya are going back to using indigenous seeds and food crops.
This eliminates the need to buy new seeds every other planting season, since farmers using indigenous seeds just have to dry some of their seeds which they can use to plant.
Jacqueline Akera is the treasurer of Can rwede pe, a farmer group in Labongo Guru Village, Oding parish, Unyama Sub County in Gulu district.
“With our local seeds, you can use them for planting, all you have to do is pick some seeds, dry and keep. When you plant the same seeds, they will still yield as highly as they did the first time as long as you plant, weed and harvest at the right time” she said.
The group of 51 members made up of mainly widows and other community members has for the last five years been using indigenous seeds to grow food crops for home consumption and sale.
These include millet, sorghum, traditional vegetables like pumpkins, cow pea, malakwang, akeyo and collard greens among others.
Can rwede pe was started as a saving group in 2018.
I visited the group recently and found out that they are growing several nutritious traditional seeds and crops.
The members even sundry the traditional vegetables which they consume during the dry season when they can’t grow fresh ones.
Akera says local seeds can be easily replicated compared to improved seeds.
“Many people go and buy collard greens locally known as Sukuma wiki from shops expensively but after planting, you cannot harvest any seeds which means they have to buy seeds every planting season” Akera said.
The members ventured into vegetable growing after finding difficulty in keeping up with weekly savings due to lack of cash.
“When we started weekly savings, there were weeks where members were unable to save because they did not have money. So we decided to find other ways of making money and decided to venture into vegetable growing. Vegetables like boo (cow pea) take two and half weeks for one to start harvesting and selling. This saved us from selling household food stuffs like sorghum and beans to get money for savings,” she said.
From selling the vegetables and indigenous seeds, the group managed to save 3.7 million shillings last year (2021) and is targeting to save 7 million shillings from indigenous vegetables in 2022.
Akera explains that growing crops using indigenous seeds has been advantageous to the group and opened up opportunities for them.
“Growing indigenous crops helped us during the coronavirus pandemic, health experts were advising people to eat vegetables to build immunity and these are foods we already had. We did not imagine Ker Kwaro Acholi- the Acholi Cultural Institution would ever come to our village to see our work and look for local seeds to perform cultural rites,” she said.
Ladoo Sarafina, the Chairperson of Can Rwede Pe group says they also support other women groups interested in growing indigenous seeds and crops.
“Women come to us for seeds that they don’t have, we give them for free but if they need a lot, we sell to them at a small fee,” Ladoo said.
The group has been storing their seeds and dried vegetables in polythene bags which they say is not ideal as the seeds easily get exposed to weevils.
They have now built a granary which they use to store their seeds.
Can Rwede Pe are a beneficiary of Promoting Women Land Rights and Local Seed Bank project of Gulu Women Economic Development and Globalization-GWED-G-a Non-Governmental Organization.
The project is funded by CivFund, a non-profit.
The 18 months project that ends in December 2022 aims is to change the food production and consumption patterns through training and raising awareness about indigenous seeds and crops.
Lucy Nyeko, the program officer says promoting women land rights and going back to growing indigenous seeds will in a long run reduce the cost of production, ensure food security and improved health among the population.
“When we promote the women land rights and go back to produce indigenous seed, it means our cost of production goes low. The local seeds that we produce don’t need chemicals. We are talking about green grams, sorghum, millet and vegetables. You can even dry, store them and still use it to plant,” she said.
Enabu Joseph Morris, a nutritionist at Soroti Regional Referral Hospital says indigenous foods were earlier produced for food purposes,
“Foods such as millet were produced by every household. It is one of the foods that have been cultivated for very many years.”
Enabu thinks that modified seeds can actually co-exist with traditional seeds to ensure that there is food security.
“In 1981, there was famine and communities managed to overcome it with traditional seeds. In 1983, a similar thing happened and that is when ministry of agriculture came up with modified seeds in order to resist some of the diseases that had affected some of our seeds. We need a lot of input from agricultural scientists in order to improve on the sustainability and resistance of our crops to pests and diseases.
Finger millet is one of the cereal crops that has been slowly disappearing from diets of many families-mainly because its production has reduced.
A woman spreads millet to dry in Kapelebyong district.
Statistics from Uganda Bureau of Statistics indicate that millet production dropped from 193,461 metric tons in 2016 to 70,000 metric tons in 2020.
Scovia Adikini, a senior research officer at the National Semi Arid Agricultural Research Institute, NASARI in Serere district says millet is a good food security crop that should be promoted by government
“In terms of food security, finger millet is one cereal that you can store for years without being damaged by any pests. Traditionally, communities that grew finger millet had granaries. Communities that grew finger millet in the past never used to run out of food,” she said.
In Teso sub region, some farmers are using both the indigenous and improved seed and crop variety.
Okiror Moses, the senior Agriculture Officer Soroti district explains that indigenous seeds are on a decline for various reasons such as introduction of improved seeds which are high yielding and low market value.
“Introduction of improved seeds has suppressed traditional seeds. Some of these indigenous food crops have very low market prices and this has caused their decline in the sub region.
Okaleng Agnes is a farmer from Otapengo village, Maseniko Sub County in Kapelebyong district.
She says, “I plant both indigenous and improved seed varieties for example when I am planting ground nuts I plant the indigenous seeds because I know that they can withstand drought but I also plant the new variety because they might also be good,” Okaleng said.
Indigenous vegetables and grains are on the verge of extinction as they are slowly being replaced with improved crop varieties.
This has a direct effect on nutrition.
Between 2013 and 2015, more than 500,000 young Ugandan children died, according to UNICEF.
Of these deaths, nearly half were associated with undernutrition.
But a Ministry of Health Nutrition Action Plan 2011- 2016 report titled “End Malnutrition Now” recommends for promoting production and consumption of indigenous foods to enhance dietary diversification.
The report states that Uganda loses US$310 million worth of productivity per year due to the high levels of stunting, iodine-deficiency disorders, iron deficiency, and low birth weight, and malnutrition contributes to a loss of about 4.1 percent of the gross domestic product.
The Food and Agricultural Organization-FAO supports the promotion of community seed banks as a system that communities can adopt to store and manage regular seed needs.
According to FAO, the system can also help farmers to acquire varieties adapted to local conditions.
Increasing the resilience of livelihoods to threats and crises is one of the strategic objectives of FAO (Strategic Objective 5, or SO5), where it is crucial to increase resilience regarding agriculture and food and nutrition security, sectors that are among the most severely affected by natural threats.
In October 2021, the National Agricultural Research Organization-NARO came out with standard Operating Procedures for establishment of community seed bank in Uganda, the first of its kind.
Ambrose Agona, the Director General NARO says the SOPs serve to technically guide stakeholders on how to establish a functional community seed bank
This reporting was supported by the International Women’s Media Foundation’s Gender Justice Reporting Initiative.
About the Author
Justine Muboka is a journalist who works as a sub news Editor at Mega Fm, one of the leading radio stations in Northern Uganda. She also writes stories for the… Read More.
Small vineyards, big wines
The neoterroirist movement is gaining traction in Rioja. One of the families leading the charge is the Egurens.
You might ask yourself, “Neoterroirists? Hasn’t Rioja always been a terroir-based wine?” Yes and no. If we look at the last quarter of the 19 th century, the founders of what is known today as modern Rioja (that is, wines made from destemmed grapes and aged in oak – Luciano de Murrieta, Camilo Hurtado de Amézaga, Rafael López de Heredia and others) believed in owning vineyards and creating brands based on wines produced there. But they, and wineries founded later also believed in blending grapes and wine from different parts of our region because the low alcohol tempranillo-based wines from Rioja Alta and Alavesa needed the meatier garnacha-based wines from hot Rioja Baja to flesh out their wines and because the end of the harvest in Alta and Alavesa often brought cold and rain.
The neoterroirists reject the Rioja-wide blending habits of the large wineries, assuming the risks of putting all their grapes in one basket, attempting to define the personality of wines produced in small vineyards. The latest slogan used by the Rioja Regulatory Council, ‘Rioja: the land of a thousand wines’ recognizes this fact.
Like a few other families in Rioja, the Egurens started out as farmers who decided to vinify their grapes, age and bottle their wines rather than sell grapes to other wineries. The family have been farmers since 1870 with the fifth generation currently managing the company. They own 100 hectares in Rioja and 92 hectares in the DO Toro. Their Rioja business is based in San Vicente de la Sonsierra across the Ebro river from Briones in La Rioja and Páganos, near Laguardia in Rioja Alavesa.
Three generations of the Eguren family (Credit: Eguren brochure)
San Vicente de la Sonsierra is the largest village in the Sonsierra region, located at the foot of the Sierra Cantabria mountain range. San Vicente belongs administratively to La Rioja but viticulturally, the Sonsierra lies between Briñas to the west near the Conchas of Haro to just east of San Vicente and includes vineyards in La Rioja and Álava. Some wine writers call the Sonsierra ‘la milla de oro’ or ‘the Golden Mile’.
The family philosophy is to blend wines from their own vineyards for the Sierra Cantabria range and to produce single vineyard wines for the Viñedos de Páganos range. Marcos Eguren, the head viticulturist and winemaker for the family explained that their project is “to make wines that evoke the character of the vineyard, versatile and with a strong personality”.
The family’s properties are:
- El Puntido (25 hectares of tempranillo planted in 1975 in Páganos at 600 meters above sea level on calcareous clay soil)
- La Nieta (1,75 hectares of tempranillo planted in 1975 in Páganos on silty clay soil, with 30% of the vines planted on a bedrock base)
- La Veguilla (16,5 hectares of tempranillo planted in 1975 in San Vicente de la Sonsierra on pure clay and calcareous clay soil with pebbles)
- Finca El Bosque (1,48 hectares of tempranillo planted in 1973 in San Vicente de la Sonsierra on clay soil with pebbles)
- La Canoca (18 hectares of tempranillo planted in 1985 on calcareous clay soil)
- La Llana (10 hectares of tempranillo planted in 1980 on alluvial soil)
- Valgrande and Jarrarte (4 hectares of tempranillo and garnacha, planted in 1957 and 1959 on calcareous clay soil).
- 90 hectares of tinta de Toro (tempranillo) on sandy soil. All of the vineyrds were planted at least 70 years ago, and some are prephylloxeric.
All of the family’s wines are vinified from grapes from their own vineyards.
We tasted five Riojas and three Toros.
1) Organza white 2010 (Rioja)
Organza is made from a field blend of viura, malvasía and white garnacha coming from the family’s vineyards, but from which ones wasn’t specified. Fermented in new French oak from the Vosges, remaining on the lees for six months and later matured in barrel for a further nine months.
Organza was the last wine in the tasting, which I think is a shame because it really didn’t open up after pouring. When I used to take journalists to their San Vicente winery, Marcos Eguren always recommended tasting Organza both at the beginning and the end of the tasting.
I found it to have a straw yellow color, a chamomile and aniseed nose opening up to peaches and apricots, with great acidity and structure. It’s consistently one of the best white Riojas I’ve ever tasted.
2) Murmurón 2012 (Rioja)
Murmurón is arguably Rioja’s best cosechero red, with no hint of the bubble gum and sulfur dioxide aromas that characterize most of Rioja’s cosecheros. It showed a violet-bright cherry color, a fresh, grapey nose reminiscent of strawberries and raspberries, well balanced with ripe tannins and very easy to drink. It was served slightly chilled, as these wines always are in bars here.
3) Sierra Cantabria Selección Privada red 2009 (Rioja)
This wine comes from the Valgrande and Jarrarte vineyards. It was vinified with whole berry fermentation and with crushed grapes and aged for 18 months in new French and American oak. Medium cherry. Spicy nose – to me, nutmeg with dark fruit and cocoa coming out after a few minutes. It took a long time to open up, with jammy fruit coming through when I retasted all the wines at the end of the tasting. Well balanced with ripe tannins.
4) El Puntido 2008 (Rioja)
El Puntido is a single vineyard wine coming from the eponymous vineyard. 16 months ageing in new French oak, with bottling in May, 2010. Fairly intense, brilliant cherry, cherry and slightly acidic, cranberry-like fruit. Not too much oak coming through in spite of the time spent in new wood. Great acidity and a long finish. My favorite wine in the tasting.
5) La Nieta 2009 (Rioja)
Also a single vineyard wine. Intense cherry, slightly less brilliant than El Puntido. Black cherries on the nose but otherwise closed. A mouthful. Many of the tasters gushed about La Nieta being the best wine in the tasting but I thought it was closed. It probably would have showed better if the tasting had been an hour longer. A shame.
6) Almirez 2011 (Toro)
To me, the Eguren story in Toro is fascinating. They created two dynamite brands there, Numanthia and Termanthia, the undisputed darlings of international wine gurus, led by Robert Parker. This naturally attracted the attention of the luxury brand conglomerate LMVH, who bought the Toro winery, the brands and the vineyards. The Egurens must have kept something up their sleeves, however, because they immediately began to develop new brands, a winery and 90 hectares of old vines. I’m not sure, but I suspect they owned them before the LMVH deal because otherwise the vineyards would have cost a fortune. In any case, the family is once again at the top of the heap in Toro.
Marcos Eguren explained that one of the problems winemakers face in Toro is achieving phenolic (anthocyanins and tannins) ripeness, optimum alcoholic strength (avoiding massive 15% wines) and aromatic ripeness at the same time. The solution: looking for vineyards at higher elevations, something they have succeeded at. Fruit extraction is less intense than in Rioja to obtain ripe juice while eliminating the ‘green’ flavors from unripe seeds. The Eguren story in Toro could be summed up as ‘taming the beast’.
Almirez is 100% tinta de Toro, aged for 14 months in oak – 30% new French and 70% one year-old French oak. It shows a very intense cherry color, dark fruit (hard to define because the wines were closed), with elegant tannins and good balance between spicy oak and rich fruit.
7) Victorino 2010 (Toro). 100% tinta de Toro. 18 months in new French oak, bottled in June, 2012.
Very intense cherry. Again a very closed nose at first, opening up to reveal black cherries and spicy aromas. It was more open on the palate than on the nose, with ripe tannins, vibrant acidity and great structure. After 15 minutes in the glass it was still closed.
8) Alabaster 2010 (Toro). 100% tinta de Toro from prephylloxeric vines. 18 months in new French oak. Bottled in July, 2012.
Intense black cherry color. Closed nose. I was only able to discern the spicy oak. A huge mouthful, however, revealing black fruit and ripe tannins. Smooth and well-balanced.
I learned a lot from this tasting, especially about Toro: the value of north-facing vineyards in the region; high altitude vineyards to allow ripe tannins, moderate alcohol, and vibrant acidity; and sandy soil as the home of prephylloxeric vineyards (Jumilla is another place where this occurs). It reaffirmed my faith in Marcos Eguren’s prodigious talent as a winemaker and the unquestionable advantage of owning old vines. My only comments were that in future tastings, all the wines should be poured at the beginning to allow them to open up and be fully appreciated. Just opening the bottles isn’t enough. If consumed with a meal, these wines should be decanted at least 30 minutes before service. And finally, do the Toro wines need 18 months in new oak? If I can put my finger on one ongoing criticism of Rioja and mine especially in Toro is that oak aging is often overdone. Maybe a touch less would be a good thing.