Secondary weed seeds

Weed Seeds Order Review Secondary Consultation Document

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Archived

Table of Contents

  • 1.0 Background
  • 2.0 Rationale for Change
  • 3.0 Update
  • 4.0 Comments on Feedback to Date
  • 5.0 CFIA Responses to the WSO Consultation
  • 6.0 Proposed Revised Weed Seeds Order
  • 7.0 Species Placement
  • 8.0 Appendix
  • 9.0 Proposal Feedback Form
  • 10.0 Identification of Respondent

September 15, 2011

Note: Although the consultation period outlined in this document has ended, we continue to accept proposed changes to the Weed Seeds Order at any time at: [email protected].

1.0 Background

The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) consulted broadly with Canadians regarding proposed changes to the Weed Seeds Order (WSO) between October 23, 2009 and February 15, 2010 . The comments received were published and distributed on April 30, 2010 .

  • Weed Seeds Order Workshop “Scoping the Issues” Report (October 2008)
  • Weed Seeds Order Workshop II “Initiating Change” Report (March 2009)
  • Weed Seeds Order Review: Proposal for Change (October 23, 2009)
  • Weed Seeds Order Review Responses Received ( April 30 2010 )
  • Risk Management documents for proposed prohibited noxious are available by request at [email protected]

It is assumed that the reader of this document is familiar with the material in the aforementioned documents. Species information presented in previous consultation material is not repeated herein.

The results of this secondary consultation, together with responses received to-date, will be incorporated into the Regulatory Impact Analysis Statement leading to pre-publication in Canada Gazette, Part I for a 75 day comment period.

The Revisions to the Weed Seeds Order would come into effect following publication in Canada Gazette, Part II , or upon a “coming into force” date published in Canada Gazette, Part II .

2.0 Rationale for Change

Control of the introduction of new weeds is important to Canada’s economy and environment. Established weed species increase the cost of crop production. Weedy species introduced into natural areas can reduce biodiversity and habitat. Weeds present as contaminants of seed represent a high risk pathway, as they are placed in an optimum environment for survival.

Prevention of the introduction of new weed species is the most desirable form of control. New species intentionally or unintentionally established in Canada may result in decreased markets for Canadian products. Many of Canada’s trading partners are increasing, or in the process of increasing, regulation of weeds as there is an increasing global consideration of plants as pests.

The definition of Class 1 Prohibited Noxious weed species is closely aligned with the International Plant Protection Convention’s (IPPC) definition of a quarantine pest in accordance with Canada’s international obligations. Each species listed as a Prohibited Noxious weed should, therefore, meet the definition of a quarantine pest or a regulated non-quarantine pest. Stakeholders also have expressed a desire for the clarification of the definitions for all the classes of weed species within the WSO . These definitions are CFIA policy and will remain outside of regulations.

3.0 Update

As part of the consultation held October 23, 2009 to February 15, 2010 , several additional species were suggested by stakeholders for listing in the Weed Seeds Order. The CFIA completed a “Request of Biological Information”, and in some cases a “Weed Risk Assessment”, on these species. As a result, some additional species are now considered for listing.

4.0 Comments on Feedback to Date

General

  • Comments received in the first consultation demonstrated a dichotomy of views: the WSO role of both restricting the presence of a species because it is harmful, and permitting restricted amounts of a seed because it is difficult to remove from production fields or in processing, and therefore its presence in limited amounts should be allowed.
  • Stakeholder feedback emphasized the need for industry training on proposed species as well as the need for sample specimens.
  • Certain species were proposed for removal from the WSO because they are being considered as a crop type. Stakeholders supported these changes for two species, but there is lack of consensus for the removal of other species.
  • The demonstration of a species’ ability to exhibit herbicide resistance was proposed as a consideration in determining the harmfulness of a species. There was some support for this concept, and more support for species demonstrating resistance to multiple modes of herbicide action. The CFIA continues to consider herbicide resistance one of the factors in listing weedy species.
  • Previous CFIA consultation documents contained information on frequency of species found in CFIA seed monitoring samples. This information is valuable to demonstrate movement of weedy species as contaminants of seed. However, these samples represent a small percentage of traded seed. Therefore, not finding a species in these samples does not indicate absence from Canada, and presence in samples does not indicate presence in Canada. Identification of a weedy species in monitoring samples does indicate seed is a pathway for this species. Presence in a large number of samples indicates that classifying a species in the WSO could result in significant quantities of seed being down graded.
  • The Canadian Seed Growers’ Association (CSGA) declines pedigree status to seed crops containing Class 1 Prohibited Noxious weeds, not Class 2 Primary noxious weeds. The CSGA also declines pedigree status to seed fields of Canola, Mustard, Rapeseed and Oilseed Radish if they contain the weedy species cleavers or wild mustard.
  • Two species previously proposed for reclassification from Prohibited Noxious to Primary Noxious, Diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa) and Spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe), are herein proposed to remain Prohibited Noxious, although they are present in Canada. The CFIA is continuing to propose the reclassification of Russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens) from Prohibited Noxious to Primary Noxious, as it is so widespread in Canada that it would fit best as a Primary Noxious weed. Official control programs exist for these species in one or more provinces or municipalities.

Species Listings

  • This secondary consultation document recommends moving forward with changes in species listing where there was consensus.
  • No changes from WSO 2005 are proposed to Classes 4 and 5, with the exception of the removal of Cirsium arvense (Canada Thistle), Elytrigia repens (couchgrass) and Sonchus arvensis (Perennial sow thistle) from Class 5. These three species were removed from Class 5 in order to eliminate duplication as they are listed in Class 2 which is now proposed to apply to all Grade Tables of Schedule I .
  • Stakeholder feedback on the regulation of weedy plant species under the Plant Protection Act may affect WSO listings of Prohibited Noxious species.

Requirements for Regular Changes to the WSO

  • Regular and predicable updates to the WSO are recommended. As additional plant species are added to List of Regulated Pests, updates to the WSO will be required.
  • Future revisions should consider fewer classes in the WSO .
  • Future revisions to the Grade Tables should consider higher standards for weed seed content.

5.0 CFIA Responses to the WSO Consultation

A1 – Prohibited Noxious Definition

  • 28 of 29 respondents support the Prohibited Noxious definition, or support it with minor modifications.
  • Suggested modifications and comments include:

Stakeholder Comments: It is difficult to say that the species will have an impact when it is not present.

Stakeholder Comments: Dodder may be an exception because it is common, but still a major trade problem for the seed industry.

Stakeholder Comments: Would like to see a clearer reference to ease of control.

Prohibited Noxious species that may in the future be listed on the Plant Protection Act List of Plants Regulated by Canada, may be affected by that legislation.

Stakeholder Comments: Would like to have environment listed within the definition.

Stakeholder Comments: Add ‘plant health’ to include plants that are hosts for insects and disease.

Stakeholder Comments: Define “visually” – observable by eye or with the help of a microscope.

Stakeholder Comments: If the definition of Prohibited Noxious in the Weed Seeds Order (WSO) is to be brought in line with the definition of a quarantine pest under the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), why not use the IPPC ‘s wording in the WSO definition?

or (closer to the current version)

  • Remove sentence 2: “Official control is used to prevent further spread of the species and with the goal of eradicating the species”. If official control needs to be defined, this should be included as a footnote, to avoid using definitions inside definitions. It should also follow the IPPC ‘s wording.
  • Remove second half of sentence 3: “and/or could have potential impact on the economy, human health and/or animal health” and instead refer to the IPPC ‘s definition of economic impact.
  • Remove sentence 4: “This determination would be based on a Pest Risk Assessment type process”. It is possible that reference to PRA could be made elsewhere in the document, but it does not seem appropriate as part of the definition.

Stakeholder Comments: We feel the requirement that the seeds be visually (morphologically) identifiable is critical for enforcement and should remain part of the official definition.

Stakeholder Comments: Prohibited Noxious list needs to be a controlled and manageable list. Not everything meets the criteria to be Prohibited Noxious even though it may meet the requirements to be invasive. Footnote 1

Stakeholder Comments: Seeds that are already quite common in Canada cannot now be listed as Prohibited or even any type of noxious. Footnote 1

A2 – Primary Noxious Definition

  • 28 of 29 agreed, or agreed with minor modifications.
  • Suggested modifications and comments include:

Stakeholder Comments: Weeds listed must meet the definition.

Stakeholder Comments: Would like to see a clearer reference to ease of control.

Stakeholder Comments: Would like to have environment listed within the definition.

Stakeholder Comments: Add ‘plant health’ to include plants that are hosts for insects and disease.

Stakeholder Comments: Define “visually” – observable by eye or with the help of a microscope.

Stakeholder Comments: Add Pest Risk Assessment ‘if necessary’.

Either way, we propose the following changes to the current definition:

  • Remove second half of sentence 3: “and/or could have potential impact on the economy, human health and/or animal health” and instead refer to the IPPC ‘s definition of economic impact.
  • Remove sentence 4: “This determination would be based on a Pest Risk Assessment type process”.

Stakeholder Comments: Requirement that the seeds be visually (morphologically) identifiable is critical for enforcement and should remain part of the official definition.

A3 – Secondary Noxious and Noxious Definition

  • 26 of 29 agreed, or agreed with minor modifications.
  • Suggested modifications and comments include:

Stakeholder Comments: There are many invasive species that are not problems in crops but are significant problems in natural areas, including in some cases crop species themselves. Many of these species would be considered in this category so care must be taken to ensure that these species are not allowed. Seed is commonly used for reclamation of disturbed sites in non-crop situations so species in this category must not be invasive.

Stakeholder Comments: Concerned that the proposed definition should be more clearly defined, and should include some of the provisions of the current definition of secondary noxious. Proposes that Secondary Noxious be defined as: “The species is relatively common and widespread in Canada. The species must be a weed whose presence in seed could affect the value and/or intended use of the seed lot. The species must have the potential to be a serious weed in certain crops, but be relatively easy to eradicate with current crop and seed plant management practices.The species must have identifiable seeds that can be visually distinguished from those of other species, or in rare instances, from entire genera.”

Stakeholder Comments: “The species is [proposed delete text: relatively common] and widespread in Canada”.

Stakeholder Comments: Would like to see a clearer reference to ease of control.

Stakeholder Comments: Define “visually” – observable by eye or with the help of a microscope.

Stakeholder Comments: One problem is that any weed could “affect the value and/or intended use of the seed lot”.

Another problem is that, although a certain weed could be considered serious in one area of the country, it is of no consequence in some of its major growing areas.

Yes, it is agreed that Canada’s diversity and various ecological zones creates challenges when controlling weeds, however federal legislation applies to all of Canada.

Stakeholder Comments: The requirement that the seeds be visually (morphologically) identifiable is critical for enforcement and should remain part of the official definition. We also feel it would be beneficial to define “Other Weeds”.

Proposed Definitions:

Prohibited Noxious:

The species is not yet present in Canada, or is present and is under official control as it has not yet reached its full ecological range. Official control is used to prevent further spread of the species and with the goal of eradicating the species. The species must be a weed whose presence in seed could affect the value and/or intended use of the seed lot; and/or could have potential impact on the economy, human health and/or animal health. This determination would be based on a Pest Risk Assessment type process. The species must have identifiable seeds that can be visually distinguished from those of other species, or in rare instances, from entire genera.

Primary Noxious:

The species is present in Canada and has not reached its full ecological range. The species must be a weed whose presence in seed could affect the value and/or intended use of that seed lot; and/or could have a potential impact on the economy, human health or animal health. This determination would be based on a Pest Risk Assessment type process, when deemed to be necessary. The species must have identifiable seeds that can be visually distinguished from those of other species, or in rare instances, from entire genera.

Secondary Noxious:

The species is relatively common and widespread in Canada. The species must be a weed whose presence in seed could affect the value and/or intended use of the seed lot. The species must have identifiable seeds that can be visually distinguished from those of other species, or in rare instances, from entire genera.

B1 – Structure of the WSO

  • Responses were split 50% status quo (14 respondents), 50% some reduction in number of classes (14 respondents)
  • Note that half of the respondents were interested in reducing the number of classes, indicating that there is interest in moving in this direction.
  • The CFIA does not recommend changes to the WSO structure at this time.

B2 – Primary Noxious Applies to all Tables

  • Respondents supported the application of Primary noxious to all tables at a level of 23 of 25 respondents.
  • The CSGA and the Quebec Weed Seeds Order working group supported this proposed change. The Canadian Seed Trade Association objects to this proposed change.
  • Currently, Primary noxious standards do not apply to Grade Table XIV (Lawn or turf mixtures of two or more kinds of seeds) and Table XV (Ground cover mixtures composed of seed of two or more kinds other than cereal mixtures, forage mixtures, and lawn or turf mixtures).
  • Conversely, Class 5 applies to Tables XIV and XV .
  • Several species proposed for reclassification from Prohibited Noxious to Primary Noxious are too harmful to be permitted in Table XIV and Table XV crop types. In addition, seed mixtures planted on un-managed lands often fall under these two tables.
  • As lawn or turf mixtures (Table XIV ) are often mowed, the spread of these weed seeds is decreased. However, it can not be assured that Table XIV or Table XV crops will be mowed or managed for weed control. The presence of Primary noxious weeds in these mixtures presents a significant risk for spread of harmful weedy species.
  • Current Primary noxious weeds found most often in CFIA monitoring samples are Couchgrass (Elytrigia repens), Cleavers (Galium aparine), and Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense). These three primary noxious species occur significantly more frequently than other Primary noxious species.
  • CFIA proposes Primary Noxious applies to all Grade Tables.

Footnote

6.0 Proposed Revised Weed Seeds Order

Class 1
Prohibited Noxious Weed Seeds
(Applicable to all tables of Schedule I to the Seeds Regulations)

Item Latin Name Common Name
1. Aegilops cylindrica Jointed goatgrass
2. Alopecurus myosuroides Slender foxtail
3. Bothriochloa ischaemum Yellow bluestem
4. Bothriochloa laguroides Silver beardgrass
5. Centaurea diffusa Diffuse knapweed
6. Centaurea iberica Iberian star thistle
7. Centaurea solstitialis Yellow star thistle
8. Centaurea stoebe Spotted knapweed
9. Centaurea virgata subsp. squarrosa Squarrose knapweed
10. Crupina vulgaris Common crupina
11. Cuscuta spp. Dodder
12. Echium plantagineum Paterson’s curse
13. Eriochloa villosa Woolly cup grass
14. Halogeton glomeratus Halogeton
15. Inula britannica British Yellowhead
16. Milium vernale Spring Millet grass
17. Nassella trichotoma Serrated tussock
18. Paspalum dilatatum Dallis grass
19. Peganum harmala African-rue
20. Persicaria perfoliata Devil’s-tail tearthumb
21. Pueraria montana Kudzu
22. Senecio inaequidens Narrow-leaved ragwort
23. Senecio madagascariensis Madagascar ragwort
24. Solanum elaeagnifolium Silverleaf nightshade
25. Taeniatherum caput-medusae Medusahead rye
26. Zygophyllum fabago Syrian bean-caper

Bolding indicates species proposed by stakeholders as part of the October 2009 consultation

Comments on this proposed Weed Seeds Order can be directed to [email protected]

Class 2
Primary Noxious Weed Seeds
(Applicable to all tables of Schedule I to the Seeds Regulations)

Item Latin Name Common Name
1. Abutilon theophrasti Velvetleaf
2. Acroptilon repens (=Rhaponticum repens) Russian knapweed
3. Amaranthus tuberculatus Tall water-hemp
4. Ambrosia trifida Giant ragweed
5. Anthriscus sylvestris Cow parsley
6. Berteroa incana Hoary alyssum
7. Carduus acanthoides Spiny plumeless thistle
8. Carduus nutans Nodding thistle
9. Cenchrus longispinus Long-spined sandbur
10. Chondrilla juncea Rush skeletonweed
11. Cirsium arvense Canada thistle
12. Conium maculatum Poison hemlock
13. Convolvulus arvensis Field bindweed
14. Datura stramonium Jimsonweed
15. Elytrigia repens (=Elymus repens) Couchgrass
16. Euphorbia esula Leafy spurge
17. Galega officinalis Goat’s-rue
18. Galium aparine Cleavers
19. Galium mollugo False baby’s breath
20. Galium spurium False cleavers
21. Galium verrucosum Warty bedstraw
22. Heracleum mantegazzianum Giant hogweed
23. Heracleum sosnowskyi Hogweed
24. Lepidium appelianum Globe-pod hoary cress
25. Lepidium draba subsp. chalapense (=Lepidium chalepense) Lens-pod hoary cress
26. Lepidium draba subsp. draba (=Lepidium draba) Heart-pod hoary cress
27. Linaria spp. Toadflax
28. Lythrum salicaria Purple loosestrife
29. Nicandra physalodes Apple of Peru
30. Odontites vernus subsp. serotinus Red bartsia
31. Raphanus raphanistrum Wild radish
32. Senecio jacobaea (=Jacobaea vulgaris) Tansy ragwort
33. Setaria faberi Giant foxtail
34. Silene latifolia subsp. alba White cockle
35. Silene vulgaris Bladder campion
36. Solanum carolinense Horse-nettle
37. Sonchus arvensis Perennial sow thistle
38. Sorghum halepense Johnson grass
39. Tribulus terrestris Puncture vine

Bolding indicates species proposed by stakeholders as part of the October 2009 consultation

Comments on this proposed Weed Seeds Order can be directed to [email protected]

Class 3
Secondary Noxious Weed Seeds
(Applicable to all tables of Schedule I to the Seeds Regulations except Tables XIV and XV )

Item Latin Name Common Name
1. Ambrosia artemisiifolia Common ragweed
2. Anthemis cotula Mayweed
3. Avena fatua Wild oat
4. Avena sterilis Sterile oat
5. Barbarea spp. Yellow rocket
6. Bromus arvensis Field brome
7. Bromus japonicus Japanese brome
8. Bromus secalinus Cheat
9. Bromus tectorum Downy brome
10. Daucus carota subsp. carota Wild carrot
11. Erucastrum gallicum Dog mustard
12. Lepidium campestre Field peppergrass
13. Leucanthemum vulgare Ox-eye daisy
14. Lolium persicum Persian darnel
15. Pastinaca sativa Wild parsnip
16. Plantago lanceolata Ribgrass
17. All Rumex species
(except R. maritimus & R. acetosella)
Dock
18. Silene noctiflora Night-flowering catchfly
19. Sinapis arvensis Wild mustard
20. Sisymbrium loeselii Tall hedge mustard
21. Thlaspi arvense Stinkweed
22. Tripleurospermum maritimum subsp. inodorum Scentless chamomile
23. Vaccaria hispanica Cow cockle
See also  Serious happiness seeds

Bolding indicates species proposed by stakeholders as part of the October 2009 consultation

Comments on this proposed Weed Seeds Order can be directed to [email protected]

Class 4
Secondary Noxious Weed Seeds
(Applicable to Table XII of Schedule I to the Seeds Regulations)

Item Latin Name Common Name
1. Cerastium spp. Mouse-ear Chickweed
2. Digitaria spp. Crabgrass
3. Panicum spp. Panic grass
4. Prunella vulgaris Heal-all
5. Stellaria media Common Chickweed

Bolding indicates species proposed by stakeholders as part of the October 2009 consultation

Comments on this proposed Weed Seeds Order can be directed to [email protected]

Class 5
Noxious Weed Seeds
(Applicable to Tables XIV and XV of Schedule I to the Seeds Regulations)

Item Latin Name Common Name
1. Cerastium spp. Mouse-ear Chickweed
2. Digitaria spp. Crabgrass
3. Leucanthemum vulgare Ox-eye daisy
4. Panicum spp. Panic grass
5. Prunella vulgaris Heal-all
6. Stellaria media Common Chickweed
7. Tripleurospermum martimum subsp. inodorum Scentless chamomile

Bolding indicates species proposed by stakeholders as part of the October 2009 consultation

Comments on this proposed Weed Seeds Order can be directed to [email protected]

7.0 Species Placement

Class 1: Prohibited Noxious

No respondents objected to this species remaining as a Class 1 Prohibited Noxious.

This species is not reported to occur in Canada and no evidence that it is cultivated in Canada was found. Efforts are now being made in the U.S. to curb its planting in favour of native grasses and to control this troublesome species in native vegetation.

Current Classification: Prohibited
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Centaurea diffusa
Common Name: Diffuse Knapweed
New Proposal: Class 1 – Prohibited Noxious

There was not consensus to remove this species from Prohibited Noxious. Stakeholders voiced concern about the seriousness of this weed and its significant economic impact.

Centaurea diffusa is reported from BC , AL , SK , ON and QC .

Additional Stakeholder feedback regarding species distribution and control measures is requested

The main pathway for introduction of Centaurea iberica into Canada is considered to be as a contaminant in seed lots. This species displaces valuable forage species in pastures and rangelands and its sharp spines deter grazing animals which restricts access for livestock and reduces the value of hay. The presence of C. iberica in Canada could affect trade of forage seed with the states of AZ , CA , NV and OR , where it is regulated.

No respondents objected to this species being listed as a Class 1 Prohibited Noxious.

Current Classification: Prohibited
Proposed Classification: Prohibited
Scientific Name: Centaurea solstitialis
Common Name: Yellow Starthistle
New Proposal: Class 1 – Prohibited Noxious

Centaurea solstitialis has been reported to occur in Canada, but there is no evidence of persistent populations and no evidence was found that it is cultivated in Canada. Therefore, this species is considered absent. C. solstitialis is considered likely to establish and become invasive in parts of Canada, including southern BC , if it is introduced to these areas.

No respondents objected to this species remaining as a Class 1 Prohibited Noxious.

Current Classification: Prohibited
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Centaurea stoebe
Common Name: Spotted knapweed
New Proposal: Class 1 – Prohibited Noxious

There was not consensus to remove this species from Prohibited Noxious. Respondents voiced concern about the seriousness of this weed and its significant economic impact.

Centaurea stoebe is reported from BC , AL , SK , NB , NS , ON , QC , SK , YK .

Additional Stakeholder feedback regarding species distribution and control measures is requested.

Respondents voiced concern about the seriousness of this weed and its potential economic impact.

Centaurea virgata is not known to occur in Canada. It has a limited distribution in Utah, Oregon, California, Wyoming and Michigan. It prefers dry, open rangeland with shallow soils. Based on its range in eastern Europe and Asia, it appears it could be hardy to NAPPFAST zone 5.

Current Classification: Prohibited
Proposed Classification: Prohibited
Scientific Name: Crupina vulgaris
Common Name: Common Crupina
New Proposal: Class 1 – Prohibited Noxious

Depending on the level of infestation and the potential range of the species, Crupina vulgaris could have serious negative economic impacts on at least two major industries in Canada, forage and livestock production. The marketing of seed commodities could also be affected due to its designation as a federal noxious weed in the United States. It is not yet present in Canada and a pest risk assessment has shown that it is a potential threat to Canada.

No respondents objected to this species remaining as a Class 1 Prohibited Noxious.

Current Classification: Prohibited
Proposed Classification: Prohibited
Scientific Name: Cuscuta spp.
Common Name: Dodder
New Proposal: Class 1 – Prohibited Noxious

The genus is widespread around the world and most of the exotic species are now of very sporadic occurrence in Canada. Exotic species could be considered to be “not widely distributed and under official control” and therefore qualify as quarantine pests to Canada.

No respondents objected to listing this species as a Class 1 Prohibited Noxious.

Current Classification: Prohibited
Proposed Classification: Prohibited
Scientific Name: Eriochloa villosa
Common Name: Woolly Cup Grass
New Proposal: Class 1 – Prohibited Noxious

Populations in Quebec are under official control. Eriochloa villosa reduces crop yield in corn, soybean and cereals. The potential range of this species includes the corn and soybean growing areas in Canada.

No respondents objected to this species remaining as a Class 1.

Current Classification: Prohibited
Proposed Classification: Prohibited
Scientific Name: Halogeton glomeratus
Common Name: Halogeton
New Proposal: Class 1 – Prohibited Noxious

No respondents objected to this species remaining as a Class 1 Prohibited Noxious.

Inula britannica qualifies as a potential primary noxious weed seed. It is an alien weed that has the potential to have an economic impact in parts of Canada and is not yet widely distributed. The capacity of Inula britannica to have an economic impact in Canada is very uncertain. It has not shown any tendency to spread far from the two introduced populations known in this country. It has demonstrated the ability to persist locally for extended periods of time. Ease of seed identification is not known.

Millium vernale is considered likely to become weedy or invasive in the winter wheat growing areas of southern Canada. Due to its presence in Idaho, a possible pathway of introduction into Canada is as a seed contaminant in grain or in seed lots from Idaho.

No respondents objected to the listing of this species as Class 1 Prohibited Noxious.

Current Classification: Prohibited
Proposed Classification: Prohibited
Scientific Name: Nassella trichotoma
Common Name: Serrated Tussock
New Proposal: Class 1 – Prohibited Noxious

Nassella trichotoma is a risk to native grasslands as it has the potential to become established in those areas. The main pathway for introduction of N. trichotoma into Canada is considered to be as a contaminant of seed.

No respondents objected to this species remaining as Prohibited Noxious.

Paspalum dilatatum is considered a weed of 14 crops in 28 countries. It is probable that the most likely pathway for introduction into Canada is as contaminants in grass seed.

No respondents objected to this species being classified as Prohibited Noxious.

Peganum harmala is not known to be present or cultivated in Canada. It is toxic and unpalatable to grazing animals, and is toxic to humans. Two substances found within P. harmala (harmaline and harmalol) are regulated as controlled substances under Schedule 3 of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA) administered by Health Canada.

No respondents objected to the listing of this species as Class 1 Prohibited Noxious.

This species reproduces by seed only. It is not considered an agricultural weed, but has caused economic damages and losses to trees and shrubs in orchards, nurseries, Christmas tree plantations (and potentially other commercial forest sites), and regeneration sites.

No respondents objected to the listing of this species as Class 1 Prohibited Noxious.

Seed is not a major pathway of Pueraria montana. There is one known site in Ontario which is under official control by OMAFRA and CFIA working group.

No respondents objected to the listing of this species as Class 1 Prohibited Noxious.

No respondents objected to the listing of this species as Class 1 Prohibited Noxious.

Zygophyllum fabago is not known to occur in Canada. Control with herbicides is difficult because of the waxy leaf surfaces and extensive root system. The plants of this species are not palatable to livestock.

No respondents objected to the listing of this species as Class 1 Prohibited Noxious.

Class 2: Primary Noxious

Abutilon theophrasti is an annual herb of the mallow family which is native from the Mediterranean area to central Asia.

No respondents objected to this species remaining as Class 2 Primary Noxious.

Current Classification: Prohibited
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Acroptilon repens (=Rhaponticum repens)
Common Name: Russian Knapweed
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

There was not consensus to remove this species from Prohibited Noxious. Respondents voiced concern about the seriousness of this weed and its significant economic impact.

Acroptilon repens is an herbaceous perennial of the aster family which is native to Eurasia which reproduces mainly by vegetative shoots from rhizomes but also produces small quantities of viable seed. This species is present throughout the west and central USA and is a quarantine weed in Australia, New Zealand and Russia.

Additional Stakeholder feedback regarding species distribution and control measures is requested.

Current Classification: Primary
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Ambrosia trifida
Common Name: Giant Ragweed
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

Ambrosia trifida is an annual herb of the aster family and is native to North America. It has been a federally regulated weed in Canada since 1905. This species can be difficult to control. Glyphosate tolerant populations have been confirmed in Ontario.

No respondents objected to this species remaining as Class 2 Primary Noxious.

Current Classification: Prohibited
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Carduus nutans
Common Name: Nodding Thistle
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

Current Classification: Primary
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Cirsium arvense
Common Name: Canada Thistle
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

Cirsium arvense was first regulated in Canada in 1667 in Quebec and has been regulated federally since 1905. Cirsium arvense is considered one of the most difficult or challenging species to control in most crops and management systems. C. arvense is regulated federally in the U.S. and by many other trading partners. C. arvense is listed as a noxious weed in 50 US states. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, Cirsium arvense was found in 83 domestic seed samples and 5 imported samples.

Additional stakeholder feedback is requested.

Current Classification: Prohibited
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Conium maculatum
Common Name: Poison Hemlock
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

All plant parts are poisonous and it reproduces strictly via seeds. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, Conium maculatum was not detected in samples of either domestic or imported seed. C. maculatum has been found in two grain imports sampled since February 2008.

No respondents objected to the reclassification of this species as a Class 2 Primary Noxious.

Current Classification: Primary
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Convolvulus arvensis
Common Name: Field Bindweed
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

Convolvulus arvensis has been regulated as a weed in Canada since 1905. Convolvulus arvensis is considered one of the most difficult or challenging species to control in conventional, organic, and no-till systems.

There was no consensus to reclassify this species.

Current Classification: Prohibited
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Datura stramonium
Common Name: Jimsonweed
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

No respondents objected to the reclassification of this species as a Class 2 Primary Noxious.

Current Classification: Primary, noxious
Proposed Classification: Secondary
Scientific Name: Elytrigia repens (=Elymus repens)
Common Name: Couch Grass
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

Current Classification: Prohibited
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Euphorbia esula
Common Name: Leafy Spurge
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

Six respondents commented on this species, three proposed that this species remain as Prohibited noxious and three agreed with moving to Primary noxious. As this species is present in Canada and is not under official control, it does not meet the definition of Prohibited Noxious.

Current Classification: Primary
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Galium aparine
Common Name: Cleavers
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

No consensus to move this species from Class 2.

The Canadian Seed Growers’ Association’s Crop Certification Regulations (Circular 6, 2010) indicate that the presence of Cleavers would results in a decline of pedigreed status in certified canola, mustard, oilseed radish, rapeseed and hybrid canola and rapeseed. As well as Probation and Foundation canola, mustard, oilseed radish, rapeseed, safflower and sunflower.

Current Classification: Primary
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Galium spurium
Common Name: False Cleavers
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

Stakeholders have indicated that this species is very problematic in canola. The USDA Plants Database lists this species as present in the state of Michigan.

Heracleum mantegazzianum is a phytotoxic plant whose sap can cause severe skin inflammation and burns when skin is exposed to sunlight or UV rays. This species spreads by seed and asexually from the crown. H. mantegazzianum is currently present in BC , ON , NB and NS .

No respondents objected to the listing of this species as a Class 2 Primary Noxious.

Current Classification: Prohibited
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Lepidium appelianum
Common Name: Globe-pod Hoary Cress
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

No respondents objected to the reclassification of this species as a Class 2 Primary Noxious.

No respondents objected to the reclassification of this species as a Class 2 Primary Noxious.

No respondents objected to the reclassification of this species as a Class 2 Primary Noxious.

Current Classification: Primary
Proposed Classification: Secondary
Scientific Name: Linaria spp.
Common Name: Toadflax
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

No consensus to move species from Class 2 to Class 3.

Current Classification: Primary
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Lythrum salicaria
Common Name: Purple Loosestrife
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

Lythrum salicaria spreads by seed and asexually from roots. Detached root or stem fragments can also root and develop into flowering stems.

No respondents objected to this species remaining as Class 2 Primary Noxious.

Nicandra physalodes is a serious agricultural weed in some parts of the world. It invades many crops, including Glycine max (soyabean), Hordeum vulgare (barley), Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), Sorghum bicolor (sorghum), Triticum aestivum (wheat), Zea mays (maize), and others. In Canada, Nicandra physalodes has been found as a contaminant in survey samples of birdfeed and wheat. N. physalodes meets the definition of a Primary Noxious weed.

No respondents objected to the listing of this species as Class 2 Primary Noxious.

No respondents objected to this species being reclassified to Class 2 Primary Noxious.

Current Classification: Primary
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Raphanus raphanistrum
Common Name: Wild Radish
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

During consultations, stakeholders indicated that this species is difficult to control.

Current Classification: Primary
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Senecio jacobaea (=Jacobaea vulgaris)
Common Name: Tansy Ragwort
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

Senecio jacobaea spreads by seed, primarily by wind, water and animals. This species is present in BC , ON , QC , NB , NS , PE and NF .

No respondents objected to this species remaining as Class 2 Primary Noxious.

Current Classification: Primary
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Setaria faberi
Common Name: Giant Foxtail
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

No respondents objected to this species remaining as Class 2 Primary Noxious.

No respondents objected to this species remaining as Class 2 Primary Noxious.

Current Classification: Primary
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Silene vulgaris
Common Name: Bladder Campion
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

Current Classification: Prohibited
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Solanum carolinense
Common Name: Horse-nettle
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

No respondents objected to the reclassification of this species to Class 2 Primary Noxious.

Current Classification: Primary, Noxious
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Sonchus arvensis
Common Name: Perennial Sow Thistle
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

Current Classification: Prohibited
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Sorghum halepense
Common Name: Johnson Grass
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

No respondents objected to the reclassification of this species as a Class 2 Primary Noxious.

Class 3: Secondary Noxious

In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, Ambrosia artemisiifolia was detected in 2 samples of domestic seed, 17 samples of imported seed and 5 seed samples of unspecified origin. A. artemisiifolia has been regulated as a weed in Canada since 1905, and has demonstrated herbicide resistance.

No respondents objected to this species remaining as Class 3 Secondary Noxious.

Current Classification: Secondary
Proposed Classification: Secondary
Scientific Name: Anthemis cotula
Common Name: Mayweed
New Proposal: Class 3 – Secondary Noxious

No respondents objected to this species remaining as Class 3 Secondary Noxious.

Current Classification: Secondary
Proposed Classification: Secondary
Scientific Name: Avena fatua
Common Name: Wild oat
New Proposal: Class 3 – Secondary Noxious

No respondents objected to this species remaining as Class 3 Secondary Noxious.

Current Classification: Secondary
Proposed Classification: Secondary
Scientific Name: Avena sterilis
Common Name: Sterile oat
New Proposal: Class 3 – Secondary Noxious

Stakeholders supported a Class 3 listing for this species.

Current Classification: Primary
Proposed Classification: Secondary
Scientific Name: Barbarea spp.
Common Name:
Yellow rocket
New Proposal: Class 3 – Secondary Noxious

Stakeholders indicated this species is widespread and common.

Of eight respondents, four agreed with this species being listed as Class 2 but preferred that downy brome and japanese brome be listed in the same Class; one respondent suggested Class 3 and three objected to adding this species to the WSO . B. japonicus spreads by seed only and is present in BC , AB , SK , MB , ON , QC and YK .

Stakeholders indicated Downy brome and Japanese brome should be classified the same.

There is no consensus on a Class 3 listing of this species. Continued discussion between stakeholders is required. Additional feedback from stakeholders is requested.

Of four respondents, two agree and two object to this species being classified as a Class 2. Stakeholders suggested all bromes should be in the same class.

There is no consensus on a Class 3 listing of this species. Continued discussion between stakeholders is required. Additional feedback from stakeholders is requested.

Of ten responses, 5 respondents objected, two propose Class 2 and three supported Class 3. Stakeholders indicated Downy brome and Japanese brome should be classified the same.

There is no consensus on a Class 3 listing of this species. Continued discussion between stakeholders is required. Additional feedback from stakeholders is requested.

Respondents supported continued listing as a Class 3.

Current Classification: Secondary
Proposed Classification: Secondary
Scientific Name: Erucastrum gallicum
Common Name: Dog Mustard
New Proposal: Class 3 – Secondary Noxious

No respondents objected to this species remaining as Class 3.

Current Classification: Secondary
Proposed Classification: Secondary
Scientific Name: Lepidium campestre
Common Name: Field Peppergrass
New Proposal: Class 3 – Secondary Noxious

No respondents objected to this species remaining Class 3 Secondary Noxious.

Current Classification: Primary, Noxious
Proposed Classification: Secondary, Noxious
Scientific Name: Leucanthemum vulgare
Common Name: Ox-eye Daisy
New Proposal: Classes 3 & 5 – Secondary Noxious and Noxious

No respondents objected to reclassifying this species as Classes 3 & 5 – Secondary Noxious and Noxious.

Current Classification: Secondary
Proposed Classification: Secondary
Scientific Name: Lolium persicum
Common Name: Persian Darnel
New Proposal: Class 3 – Secondary Noxious

No respondents objected to this species remaining Class 3 Secondary Noxious.

Cultivation of parsnip has diminished in Canada to the point where it is now only a minor crop, but the wild form has increased as a troublesome weed, particularly in eastern regions. As a monocarpic biennial with a large tap root, it reproduces entirely by seed. A wide variety of habitats and soil types are tolerated. It is considered a noxious weed because of its toxic properties (primarily photo-activated dermatitis) to both humans and livestock. It invades disturbed sites, rights-of-way, pastures, perennial crops, and reduced-tillage fields where it effectively out-competes shorter vegetation. In Canadian agriculture it is a problem in pastures where it is differentially grazed, competes with forage species, and may cause livestock injury. It is also an increasing problem in reduced-tillage systems where perennial weeds are able to persist. As a weed in rights-of-way, it poses a serious health risk for vegetation managers, particularly during mowing and cutting operations. In Ontario, it is regulated by local weed control by-laws in the United Counties of Leeds and Grenville. In the United States, the species has been declared a prohibited noxious weed in the state of Ohio. Footnote 2

See also  When is best time to plant weed seeds

Additional stakeholder feedback is requested.

Current Classification: Secondary
Proposed Classification: Secondary
Scientific Name: Plantago lanceolata
Common Name: Ribgrass
New Proposal: Class 3 – Secondary Noxious

No respondents objected to this species remaining Class 3 Secondary Noxious.

Current Classification: Secondary
Proposed Classification: Secondary
Scientific Name: All Rumex species, (except R. maritimus & R. acetosella)
Common Name: Dock
New Proposal: Class 3 – Secondary Noxious

Respondents agreed with this classification.

Current Classification: Secondary
Proposed Classification: Secondary
Scientific Name: Silene noctiflora
Common Name: Night-flowering Catchfly
New Proposal: Class 3 – Secondary Noxious

Current Classification: Primary
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Sinapis arvensis
Common Name: Wild Mustard
New Proposal: Class 3 – Secondary Noxious

The majority of respondents supported reclassification to Class 3.

The Canadian Seed Growers’ Association’s Crop Certification Regulations (Circular 6, 2010) indicate that the presence of Wild Mustard would result in a decline pedigreed status in certified canola, mustard, oilseed radish, rapeseed and hybrid canola and rapeseed, as well as, Probation and Foundation canola, mustard, oilseed radish, rapeseed, safflower and sunflower.

Current Classification: Secondary
Proposed Classification: Secondary
Scientific Name: Sisymbrium loeselii
Common Name: Tall Hedge Mustard
New Proposal: Class 3 – Secondary Noxious

No respondents objected to this species remaining as Class 3 Secondary Noxious.

Current Classification: Secondary
Proposed Classification: Remove
Scientific Name: Thlaspi arvense
Common Name: Stinkweed
New Proposal: Class 3 – Secondary Noxious

The Canadian Seed Growers’ Association’s Crop Certification Regulations (Circular 6, 2010) indicate that excessive numbers of Stinkweed would results in a decline in pedigreed status in Camelina.

There was not consensus to remove this species from the WSO .

Current Classification: Secondary
Proposed Classification: Remove
Scientific Name: Vaccaria hispanica
Common Name: Cow cockle
New Proposal: Class 3 – Secondary Noxious

There was no consensus to remove this species.

Class 4 Secondary Noxious and Class 5 Noxious

Current Classification: Secondary, Noxious
Proposed Classification: Secondary, Noxious
Scientific Name: Digitaria spp.
Common Name: Crabgrasses
New Proposal: Classes 4 and 5 – Secondary Noxious and Noxious

Crabgrass have been regulated as Secondary Noxious (Class 4) and Noxious (Class 5) weeds on the WSO since 1960.

Current Classification: Secondary, Noxious
Proposed Classification: Secondary, Noxious
Scientific Name: Panicum spp.
Common Name: Panic grass
New Proposal: Classes 4 and 5 – Secondary Noxious and Noxious

Current Classification: Secondary, Noxious
Proposed Classification: Secondary, Noxious
Scientific Name: Prunella vulgaris
Common Name: Heal-all
New Proposal: Classes 4 and 5 – Secondary Noxious and Noxious

Current Classification: Secondary, Noxious
Proposed Classification: Secondary, Noxious
Scientific Name: Stellaria media
Common Name: Common Chickweed
New Proposal: Classes 4 and 5 – Secondary Noxious and Noxious

Species Not Listed on the Weed Seeds Order (i.e. , Class 6)

There was not consensus to add this species to the WSO .

There was no consensus to list this species on the WSO . There are ornamental trade and identification issues.

Current Classification: Secondary
Proposed Classification: Remove
Scientific Name: Cichorium intybus
Common Name: Chicory
New Proposal: Not listed on the WSO (i.e. , Class 6)

Cichorium intybus is also a crop cultivated in Canada and is listed in Table XX of Schedule I to the Seeds Regulations.

No consensus was reached based on responses received from stakeholders.

No consensus was reached from respondents, as seed is not a major pathway for this species.

There was not consensus to add Amaranthus spp. to the WSO (i.e. , Class 6).

There was not consensus to add Amaranthus spp. to the WSO (i.e. , Class 6).

There was not consensus to add Amaranthus spp. to the WSO (i.e. , Class 6).

There was no consensus to add this species to Class 2.

Current Classification: Secondary
Proposed Classification: Remove
Scientific Name: Camelina microcarpa
Common Name: Little-pod false flax
New Proposal: Not listed on the WSO (i.e. , Class 6)

Current Classification: Secondary
Proposed Classification: Remove
Scientific Name: Camelina sativa
Common Name: Gold-of-Pleasure
New Proposal: Not listed on the WSO (i.e. , Class 6)

Respondents objected the addition of this species to Class 3.

Respondents object to this species being added to Class 3.

There was not consensus to add this species to the WSO

There was no consensus to add this species to the WSO .

There was no consensus to add this species to the WSO .

There was no consensus to add this species to the WSO .

There was no consensus to add this species to the WSO .

There was no consensus to add this species to the WSO .

There was no consensus to add this species to the WSO .

No consensus to add this species to Class 3.

No consensus to add this species to Class 2.

No consensus to add this species to Class 2.

Respondents object to this species being listed as prohibited noxious due to significant identification and taxonomic issues.

Species Proposed By Stakeholders

Species Proposed By Stakeholders as Part of the Oct 2009 – Feb 2010 Consultation

Allium vineale qualifies as a potential primary noxious weed seed. It is an alien weed that has the potential to have an economic impact in parts of Canada and is not yet widely distributed. There will be difficulties in definitely identifying the seed or bulbils to the species level.

As seeds are not the major pathway, identification difficulties are present and it would have limited distribution in Canada, the CFIA recommends that this species not be listed on the WSO (i.e. , Class 6).

Anagallis arvensis does not qualify as a potential primary noxious weed seed. It is an alien weed that is not yet widely distributed, but it has little potential to have an economic impact in Canada. Seed identification is relatively easy for trained seed analysts. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, Anagallis arvensis was detected in 13 domestic seed samples and 1 imported seed sample.

Anthriscus sylvestris qualifies as a potential primary noxious weed seed. It is an alien weed that has the potential to have an economic impact in parts of Canada and has not yet reached its ecological limits in Canada. Seed identification is relatively easy for trained seed analysts.

Berteroa incana qualifies as a potential primary noxious weed seed. It is an alien weed that has the potential to have an economic impact in parts of Canada and has not yet reached its ecological limits in this country. Seed identification is relatively easy for trained seed analysts.

Bothriochloa laguroides meets most of the criteria for the proposed definition for Class 1 (Prohibited Noxious) Weed Seeds in the Weed Seeds Order. It is not yet present in Canada, and it reproduces by seed. It is a weed the presence of which in seed could affect the value and/or intended use of the seed lot, and control efforts in the United States indicate that it could have a potential impact on the economy if it were to become established in Canada.

Bromus arvensis does meet the proposed definition for Class 1 (Prohibited Noxious) Weed Seeds in the Weed Seeds Order. It is present in Canada, but has not yet reached its full ecological range. It is not currently under official control but may be a potential candidate for official control in the future. It is a weed the presence of which in seed could affect the value and/or intended use of the seed lot, and it could have a potential impact on the economy if it were to become more widely established. Bromus arvensis is reported as a weed of arable land in various parts of Europe. The CFIA Seed Lab has indicated that they have specimens available for this species, and that seeds can be visually distinguished from those of other species.

Additional stakeholder feedback on this species is requested.

Calystegia sepium does not qualify as a potential primary noxious weed seed. It is a native species that is approaching its ecological limits in Canada and has not been shown to have an economic impact in this country. Seed identification is difficult but possible for trained seed analysts.

Carduus acanthoides qualifies as a potential primary noxious weed seed. It is an alien weed that has the potential to have an economic impact in parts of Canada and has not yet reached its ecological limits in this country. There are serious difficulties in identifying seeds of Carduus species. Similar to Carduus nutans and Carduus crispus. Seeds of Carduus species are difficult to identify and require a good binocular microscope plus a high level of training and skill on the part of seed analysts. With appropriate levels of care, training and experience, seeds of Carduus acanthoides can be separated from those of other Carduus species such as Carduus nutans. These two species hybridize readily ( Desrochers et al. , 1988) and it is unlikely that hybrids can be reliably identified. The CFIA Seeds Lab recommends this species remain as a proposed noxious weed seed as long as trained seeds analysts and appropriate reference materials are provided.

Cenchrus longispinus does meet the proposed definition for Class 1 (Prohibited Noxious) weed seeds in the Weed Seeds Order. It is present in Canada, but has not yet reached its full ecological range. It is not currently under official control but may be a potential candidate for official control in the future. It is a weed the presence of which in seed could affect the value and/or intended use of the seed lot, and it could have a potential impact on the economy, as well as animal health, if it were to become more widely established. The CFIA Seed Lab has indicated that they have specimens available for this species, and that seeds can be visually distinguished from those of other species, though with some difficulty.

Chondrilla juncea qualifies as a potential primary noxious weed seed. It is an alien weed that has the potential to have an economic impact in parts of Canada and is not yet widely distributed. Seed identification is relatively easy for trained seed analysts.

Cirsium palustre qualifies as a potential primary noxious weed seed. It is an alien weed that has the potential to have an economic impact in parts of Canada and has not yet reached its ecological limits in this country. There are serious difficulties with the identification of the seeds of Cirsium species.

Cirsium palustre is a biennial or monocarpic perennial herbaceous plant. Cirsium palustre grows in marshes and wet forests. It spreads invasively through wetland communities, forming impenetrable spiny stands as it displaces native species. The species is reported to be present in BC , ON , QC , NS and NL . The current distribution suggests that Cirsium palustre can survive to NAPPFAST zone 3.

Crepis capillaris does not qualify as a potential primary noxious weed seed. It is an alien weed but has not demonstrated the potential to have an economic impact in Canada and is already quite widely distributed, although it has almost certainly not reached its ecological limits. Seed identification is relatively easy for trained seed analysts.

Crepis tectorum qualifies as a potential primary noxious weed seed. It is an alien weed that has an economic impact in parts of Canada and it has probably not reached its ecological limits in this country. Seed identification is difficult.

Crepis tectorum is an annual or winter annual herbaceous plant that reproduces entirely by seeds. It has been suggested that it spread from ballast dumps. It is particularly abundant in southern Manitoba and the northern sections of the cultivated areas in Saskatchewan and Alberta. The distribution in North America suggests that Crepis tectorum can survive to NAPPFAST zone 2. Crepis tectorum is considered a serious weed in perennial forage crops in western Canada. It can become dominant in poor stands of forage grasses where competition is reduced. It also occurs in cereal and oilseed crops in the west. The seeds are difficult to clean out of alfalfa seed (Najda et al. , 1982).In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007; Crepis tectorum was detected in 35 domestic seed samples.

Cyperus rotundus does meet the proposed definition for Class 1 (Prohibited Noxious) weed seed in the Weed Seeds Order.

Seed is not considered a pathway for this species.

Dactylis glomerata does not meet the proposed definition for Class 1 (Prohibited Noxious) weed seed in the Weed Seeds Order. It is widespread throughout Canada. It is a crop in Table XI of Schedule 1 of the Seeds Regulations.

Dipsacus fullonum and Dipsacus laciniatus do not qualify as a potential primary noxious weed seed. It is an alien weed but it has not demonstrated the potential to have an economic impact in Canada. It is not yet widely distributed. There are also serious problems with the identification of seeds of Dipsacus species.

Echinochloa crus-galli meets the definition of a secondary noxious weed in Canada. It is a widespread and common weed in Canada, and its presence in cultivated fields reduces crop yields. However, due to its widespread distribution worldwide, its common occurrence in imported seed lots, and the lack of regulation by other countries, the regulation of this species could be difficult.

Galeopsis tetrahit does not qualify as a potential primary noxious weed seed. It is an alien weed that has the potential to have an economic impact in parts of Canada but it has probably reached its ecological limits in this country. It is found to the limits of cultivation in every province except possibly British Columbia. Seed identification is relatively easy for trained seed analysts. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, Galeopsis tetrahit was detected in 20 domestic seed samples.

Galium mollugo qualifies as a potential primary noxious weed seed. It is an alien weed that has the potential to have an economic impact in parts of Canada and has not yet reached its ecological limits, although it is fairly widespread. Identification of the seeds requires care as there are a number of Galium species whose seeds are encountered as contaminants in seed lots. However, this species is identifiable for trained seed analysts with good reference material.

Although hybrids have not yet been reported in North America, Galium mollugo can cross readily with Galium verum (yellow bedstraw) to produce aggressively weedy plants.

Heracleum sosnowskyi meets most of the criteria for the proposed definition for Class 1 (Prohibited Noxious) weed seed in the Weed Seeds Order. It is not yet present in Canada, it reproduces by seed, and related species are reported as seed contaminants. It is a weed the presence of which in seed could affect the value and/or intended use of the seed lot, and reports of impacts and control efforts in Europe and Asia indicate that it could have a potential impact on the economy, human health and/or animal health if it were to become established in Canada.

Hieracium pilosella (mouse-ear hawkweed) qualifies as a potential primary noxious weed seed. It is an alien weed that has the potential to have an economic impact in parts of Canada and it is has not reached its ecological limits in this country. There are serious difficulties with the identification of seeds of Hieracium species.

Hieracium aurantiacum (orange hawkweed)+G45 qualifies as a potential primary noxious weed seed. It is an alien weed that has the potential to have an economic impact in parts of Canada and it is possible that it has not quite reached its ecological limits in this country. There are serious difficulties with the identification of seeds of Hieracium species.

Additional stakeholder feedback is requested.

Lepidium latifolium does meet the proposed definition for Class 1 (Prohibited Noxious) Weed Seeds in the Weed Seeds Order. It is present in Canada, but has not yet reached its full ecological range. It is not currently under official control but may be a potential candidate for official control in the future. It is a weed the presence of which in seed could affect the value and/or intended use of the seed lot, and it could have a potential impact on the economy if it were to become more widely established. It is regulated as a noxious weed in the East Kootenay and Thompson-Nicola regional districts by the province of British Columbia it is listed as a noxious weed in the following states: Alaska, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Hawaii, Idaho, Indiana, Massachusetts, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. In the United States, invasion of this plant causes economic losses when it persists in meadows, pastures, and / or cropland, reducing forage quantity and hay quality. In Canada, Lepidium latifoliium has recently invaded agricultural crops such as cereal grains and alfalfa, and can contaminate hay shipments. The CFIA Seed Lab has indicated that they have specimens available for this species, and that seeds can be visually distinguished from those of other species, though with some difficulty.

Additional stakeholder feedback is requested.

This species is difficult to identify in seed.

The Canadian Seed Growers’ Association’s Crop Certification Regulations (Circular 6, 2010) indicate that the presence of Broomrape would results in a decline of pedigreed status in Registered, Certified, Probation and Foundation Industrial Hemp.

If the decision is made to add proso millet to the Weed Seeds Order as a primary noxious weed seed there are three approaches that could be used.

  1. The whole species, Panicum miliaceum, could be considered a primary noxious when found as a contaminant in seed lots. This would the easiest from the laboratory viewpoint and would include all escaped biotypes, including those derived from the crop form.
  2. Only the wild subspecies, Panicum miliaceumsubsp. ruderale, could be considered primary noxious. This would also be fairly clear-cut, although training and specimens would be required by laboratory analysts to enable them to identify the seeds.
  3. All wild biotypes of Panicum miliaceum could be considered primary noxious. This would be practically impossible, as many of the biotypes are difficult to separate from some of the cultivars of the crop.

Can be differentiated from other native millets.

In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, Panicum miliaceum was detected in 3 domestic seed samples and 3 imported seed samples.

Additional stakeholder feedback is requested.

Papaver rhoeas does not qualify as a potential primary noxious weed seed. It is an alien weed but has little potential to have an economic impact in parts of Canada. As there is little winter cereal production in parts of Canada with a Mediterranean climate (very limited areas of southwestern British Columbia), this species poses little threat to this country. It is not yet widely distributed. Seed identification is possible for trained seed analysts.

Based on its distribution, Persicaria wallichii (Polygonum polystachyum) does not meet the criteria for a secondary noxious weed. This species is not common or widespread in Canada. Seeds have been described as unlikely to be found in transit, seed production is limited in North America and its main means of dispersal is by vegetative plant parts. It is able to escape cultivation and invade both disturbed and natural areas, particularly riparian areas where it appears to reduce native biodiversity.

See also  Burmese weed seeds

Based on its distribution, Fallopia sachalinensis (Polygonum sachalinense) does not meet the definition of a secondary noxious weed. This species is widespread in Canada; however it does not appear to be common. It appears unlikely that seeds would be found in transit, seed production is limited in North America and it mainly disperses by vegetative means. It is able to escape cultivation and invade both disturbed and natural areas, particularly riparian areas where it appears to reduce native biodiversity.

Senecio madagascariensis meets most of the criteria for the proposed definition for Class 1 (Prohibited Noxious) weed seed in the Weed Seeds Order. It is not yet present in Canada, it reproduces by seed, and it is a weed the presence of which in seed could affect the value and/or intended use of the seed lot. Reports of impacts and control efforts in other parts of the world indicate that it could have a potential impact on the economy and animal health if it were to become established in Canada.

Identification of this species is difficult due to the very small size of the seeds.

Taeniatherum caput-medusae does meet the proposed definition for Class 1 (Prohibited Noxious) weed seed in the Weed Seeds Order. It is not yet present in Canada, it is a weed the presence of which in seed could affect the value and/or intended use of the seed lot, and it could have a potential impact on the economy and environment if it were to become established. It is listed as a noxious weed in several states, including: California, Colorado, Nevada, Oregon, Hawaii, Wyoming and Utah. Taeniatherum caput-medusae reproduces by seed and is reported as a possible seed contaminant. Taeniatherum caput-medusae is an aggressive invader of disturbed sites in the Western United States, where it has become a serious problem on rangelands. It forms dense stands which suppress desirable vegetation, has a high silica content, and is unpalatable to livestock thereby decreasing carrying capacity and productivity of rangelands. Its forage value is very low other than for a short time in the early spring. The CFIA Seed Lab has indicated that they have specimens available for this species, and that seeds can be easily visually distinguished from those of other species.

Tribulus terrestris qualifies as a potential primary noxious weed seeds. It is an alien weed that has the potential to have an economic impact in parts of Canada and is not yet widely distributed. Seed identification is relatively easy for trained seed analysts.

Footnote

Nancy Cain, Stephen J. Darbyshire, Ardath Francis, Robert E. Nurse and Marie-José Simard . The biology of Canadian weeds. Pastinaca sativa L.

8.0 Appendix

This image illustrates plant hardiness zones (PHZ) within a map of Canada along with the area of Canada covered by each zone, as a percentage. This map allows for a representation of the potential distribution of a species in Canada based on the plant hardiness zones to which a species is thought to survive.

9.0 Proposal Feedback Form

Feedback Form

Please respond by September 15, 2011

A. Definitions:

1. Prohibited Noxious:
The species is not yet present in Canada, or is present and is under official control as it has not yet reached its full ecological range. Official control is used to prevent further spread of the species and with the goal of eradicating the species. The species must be a weed whose presence in seed could affect the value and/or intended use of the seed lot; and/or could have potential impact on the economy, human health and/or animal health. This determination would be based on a Pest Risk Assessment type process. The species must have identifiable seeds that can be visually distinguished from those of other species, or in rare instances, from entire genera.

2. Primary Noxious:
The species is present in Canada and has not reached its full ecological range. The species must be a weed whose presence in seed could affect the value and/or intended use of that seed lot; and/or could have a potential impact on the economy, human health or animal health. This determination would be based on a Pest Risk Assessment type process, when deemed to be necessary. The species must have identifiable seeds that can be visually distinguished from those of other species, or in rare instances, from entire genera.

3. Secondary Noxious:
The species is relatively common and widespread in Canada. The species must be a weed whose presence in seed could affect the value and/or intended use of the seed lot. The species must have identifiable seeds that can be visually distinguished from those of other species, or in rare instances, from entire genera.

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B. Structure:

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Do you have any further comments regarding the proposed amendments to the Weed Seeds Order that you wish to share?

C. Species Placement
  1. Please provide feedback on species placement on the Weed Seeds Order by completing the following table.
Scientific Name
(Source: GRIN )
Common Name Current Classification (Weed Seeds Order, 2005) New Proposed Classification (June 2011) Agree Remove / Reclassify Rationale
Aegilops cylindrica Jointed goatgrass Class 1 Class 1
Alopecurus myosuroides Slender foxtail N/A Class 1
Bothriochloa ischaemum Yellow bluestem N/A Class 1
Bothriochloa laguroides Silver beardgrass N/A Class 1
Centaurea diffusa Diffuse knapweed Class 1 Class 1
Centaurea iberica Iberian star thistle N/A Class 1
Centaurea solstitialis Yellow star thistle Class 1 Class 1
Centaurea stoebe Spotted knapweed Class 1 Class 1
Centaurea virgata subsp. squarrosa (=Centaurea virgata var. squarrosa) Squarrose knapweed N/A Class 1
Crupina vulgaris Common crupina Class 1 Class 1
Cuscuta spp. Dodder Class 1 Class 1
Echium plantagineum Paterson’s curse N/A Class 1
Eriochloa villosa Woolly cup grass Class 1 Class 1
Halogeton glomeratus Halogeton Class 1 Class 1
Milium vernale Spring Millet grass N/A Class 1
Nassella trichotoma Serrated tussock Class 1 Class 1
Paspalum dilatatum Dallis grass N/A Class 1
Peganum harmala African-rue N/A Class 1
Persicaria perfoliata Devil’s-tail tearthumb N/A Class 1
Pueraria montana Kudzu N/A Class 1
Senecio inaequidens Narrow-leaved ragwort N/A Class 1
Senecio madagascariensis Madagascar ragwort N/A Class 1
Solanum elaeagnifolium Silverleaf nightshade N/A Class 1
Taeniatherum caput-medusae Medusahead rye N/A Class 1
Zygophyllum fabago Syrian bean-caper N/A Class 1
Abutilon theophrasti Velvetleaf Class 2 Class 2
Acroptilon repens (=Rhaponticum repens) Russian knapweed Class 1 Class 2
Amaranthus tuberculatus Tall water-hemp N/A Class 2
Ambrosia trifida Giant ragweed Class 2 Class 2
Anthriscus sylvestris Cow parsley N/A Class 2
Berteroa incana Hoary alyssum N/A Class 2
Carduus acanthoides Spiny plumeless thistle N/A Class 2
Carduus nutans Nodding thistle Class 1 Class 2
Cenchrus longispinus Long-spined sandbur N/A Class 2
Chondrilla juncea Rush skeletonweed N/A Class 2
Cirsium arvense Canada thistle Class 2, 5 Class 2
Conium maculatum Poison hemlock Class 1 Class 2
Convolvulus arvensis Field bindweed Class 2 Class 2
Datura stramonium Jimsonweed Class 1 Class 2
Elytrigia repens (=Elymus repens) Couchgrass Class 2, 5 Class 2
Euphorbia esula Leafy spurge Class 1 Class 2
Galega officinalis Goat’s-rue N/A Class 2
Galium aparine Cleavers Class 2 Class 2
Galium mollugo False baby’s breath N/A Class 2
Galium spurium False cleavers Class 2 Class 2
Galium verrucosum Warty bedstraw N/A Class 2
Heracleum mantegazzianum Giant hogweed N/A Class 2
Heracleum sosnowskyi Hogweed N/A Class 2
Lepidium appelianum Globe-pod hoary cress Class 1 Class 2
Lepidium draba subsp. chalapense (=Lepidium chalepense) Lens-pod hoary cress Class 1 Class 2
Lepidium draba subsp. draba (=Lepidium draba ) Heart-pod hoary cress Class 1 Class 2
Linaria spp. Toadflax Class 2 Class 2
Lythrum salicaria Purple loosestrife Class 2 Class 2
Nicandra physalodes Apple of Peru N/A Class 2
Odontites vernus subsp. serotinus Red bartsia Class 1 Class 2
Raphanus raphanistrum Wild radish Class 2 Class 2
Senecio jacobaea (=Jacobaea vulgaris) Tansy ragwort Class 2 Class 2
Setaria faberi Giant foxtail Class 2 Class 2
Silene latifolia subsp. alba White cockle Class 2 Class 2
Silene vulgaris Bladder campion Class 2 Class 2
Solanum carolinense Horse-nettle Class 1 Class 2
Sonchus arvensis Perennial sow thistle Class 2, 5 Class 2
Sorghum halepense Johnson grass Class 1 Class 2
Tribulus terrestris Puncture vine N/A Class 2
Ambrosia artemisiifolia Common ragweed Class 3 Class 3
Anthemis cotula Mayweed Class 3 Class 3
Avena fatua Wild oat Class 3 Class 3
Avena sterilis Sterile oat Class 3 Class 3
Barbarea spp. Yellow rocket Class 2 Class 3
Bromus arvensis Field brome N/A Class 3
Bromus japonicus Japanese brome N/A Class 3
Bromus secalinus Cheat N/A Class 3
Bromus tectorum Downy brome N/A Class 3
Daucus carota subsp. carota Wild carrot Class 3 Class 3
Erucastrum gallicum Dog mustard Class 3 Class 3
Lepidium campestre Field peppergrass Class 3 Class 3
Leucanthemum vulgare Ox-eye daisy Class 2 Class 3, 5
Lolium persicum Persian darnel Class 3 Class 3
Pastinaca sativa Wild parsnip N/A Class 3
Plantago lanceolata Ribgrass Class 3 Class 3
Rumex spp. (except R. maritimus & R. acetosella) Dock Class 3 Class 3
Silene noctiflora Night-flowering catchfly Class 3 Class 3
Sinapis arvensis Wild mustard Class 2 Class 3
Sisymbrium loeselii Tall hedge mustard Class 3 Class 3
Thlaspi arvense Stinkweed Class 3 Class 3
Tripleurospermum maritimum subsp. inodorum Scentless chamomile Class 3, 5 Class 3, 5
Lepidium campestre Field peppergrass Class 3, 5 Class 3, 5
Vaccaria hispanica Cow cockle Class 3 Class 3
Cerastium spp. Mouse-ear chickweed Class 4, 5 Class 4, 5
Digitaria spp. Crabgrass Class 4, 5 Class 4, 5
Panicum spp. Panic grass Class 4, 5 Class 4, 5
Prunella vulgaris Heal-all Class 4, 5 Class 4, 5
Stellaria media Common chickweed Class 4, 5 Class 4, 5
Alliaria petiolata Garlic mustard Class 6 Class 6
Allium vineale Crow garlic Class 6 Class 6
Alternanthera sessilis Sessile joyweed Class 6 Class 6
Amaranthus hybridus Slim amaranth Class 6 Class 6
Amaranthus powellii Powell’s amaranth Class 6 Class 6
Amaranthus retroflexus Redroot pigweed Class 6 Class 6
Ammi majus Bishop’s weed Class 6 Class 6
Anagallis arvensis Scarlet pimpernel Class 6 Class 6
Bassia scoparia Kochia Class 6 Class 6
Bidens pilosa Spanish needles Class 6 Class 6
Calystegia sepium Hedge bindweed Class 6 Class 6
Camelina microcarpa Little-pod false flax Class 6 Class 6
Camelina sativa Gold-of-Pleasure Class 6 Class 6
Chenopodium album Lambsquarters Class 6 Class 6
Cichorium intybus Chicory Class 3 Class 6
Dioscorea polystachya Chinese yam Class 6 Class 6
Hordeum jubatum Foxtail barley Class 6 Class 6
Impatiens glandulifera Himalatan balsam Class 6 Class 6
Knautia arvensis Field scabious Class 6 Class 6
Phragmites australis Common reed Class 6 Class 6
Polygonum cuspidatum (=Fallopia japonica) Japanese knotweed Class 6 Class 6
Ricinus communis Castor bean Class 6 Class 6
Silybum marianum Milk thistle Class 6 Class 6
Solanum ptychanthum Dunal Eastern black nightshade Class 6 Class 6
Solanum sarrachoides Hairy nightshade Class 6 Class 6
Soliva sessilis Carpet burweed Class 6 Class 6
Vicia cracca Tufted vetch Class 6 Class 6
Vincetoxicum louiseae (=Vincetoxicum nigrum) Black dog strangling vine Class 6 Class 6
Vincetoxicum rossicum Dog strangling vine Class 6 Class 6
Xanthium sibiricum Siberian cocklebur Class 6 Class 6

10.0 Identification of Respondent

First Name:
Last Name:
Affiliation:

Are the opinions expressed herein:

  • your own or,
  • you are representing your affiliation (i.e. Association, Corporation)

Address:
Province:
Postal Code:
Email:

Please identify yourself by selecting from the choices below. Select all that apply.

  • agricultural primary producer
  • crop input company
  • farm organization
  • federal government
  • industry association
  • interested member of the general public
  • other, please specify
  • invasive plant council
  • municipal government
  • pedigreed seed grower
  • provincial government
  • research / academia
  • seed analyst

Please send completed responses by:

1. Mail:
Seed Section
Field Crops Division
Plant Health and Biosecurity
Canadian Food Inspection Agency
59 Camelot Drive
Ottawa, ON
K1A 0Y9

Secondary weed seeds

As used in this subchapter, unless the context otherwise indicates, the following terms shall have the following meanings. [PL 1979, c. 541, Pt. A, §65 (AMD).]

1. Advertisement. “Advertisement” means all representations, other than those on the label, disseminated in any manner or by any means, relating to seed within the meaning of this subchapter.

2. Agricultural seeds. “Agricultural seeds” shall include the seeds of grass, forage, cereal and fiber crops and any other kinds of seeds commonly recognized within this State as agricultural or field seeds, and mixtures of such seeds, except seeds of cereals grown in Maine and sold directly from grower to grower and not labeled as seed.

3. Labeling. “Labeling” includes all labels and other written, printed or graphic representations, in any form whatsoever, accompanying and pertaining to any seed whether in bulk or in containers, and includes invoices.

4. Noxious-weed seeds. “Noxious-weed seeds” must be divided into 2 classes, primary noxious-weed seeds and secondary noxious-weed seeds. The commissioner may, through promulgation of regulations, add to or subtract from the list of seeds included under either definition whenever the commissioner finds, after public hearing, that such additions or subtractions are within the respective definitions.

5. Person. “Person” shall include any individual, partnership, corporation, company, society or association.

6. Primary noxious-weed seeds. “Primary noxious-weed seeds” are the seeds of perennial weeds such as not only reproduce by seed, but also spread by underground roots or stems, and which, when established, are highly destructive and difficult to control by ordinary good cultural practice. In this State they are the seeds of Bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis), Quackgrass (Agropyron repens), Canada Thistle (Cirsium arvense), Nut Grass (Cyperus esculentus) and Wound Wort (Stachys polustris).

7. Secondary noxious-weed seeds. “Secondary noxious-weed seeds” are the seeds of such weeds as are very objectionable in fields, lawns or gardens, but can be controlled by good cultural practice. In this State they are the seeds of Dodder (Cuscuta spp.), Horsenettle (Solanum carolinense), Wild Mustard (Brassica spp.), Wild Garlic (Allium vineale), Wild Onion (Allium canadense), Wild Radish (Raphanus raphanistrum), Perennial Sowthistle (Sonchus arvensis), Corncockle (Agrostemma githago), Buckhorn Plantain (Plantago lanceolata) and Yellow Rocket (Barbarea vulgaris).

7-A. Tree and shrub seeds. “Tree and shrub seeds” shall include the seeds of woody plants commonly known and sold as tree and shrub seeds in this State.

8. Vegetable seeds. “Vegetable seeds” shall include the seeds of those crops which are grown in gardens or on truck farms and are generally known and sold under the name of vegetable seeds in this State.

9. Weed seeds. “Weed seeds” shall include the seeds of all plants other than other crop seed and pure seed and shall include noxious-weed seeds.

The Revisor’s Office cannot provide legal advice or interpretation of Maine law to the public.
If you need legal advice, please consult a qualified attorney.

Office of the Revisor of Statutes · 7 State House Station · State House Room 108 · Augusta, Maine 04333-0007

Weed Seeds Order, 2016 (SOR /2016-93)

The Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food, pursuant to subsection 4(2) Footnote a of the Seeds Act Footnote b , makes the annexed Weed Seeds Order, 2016 .

Ottawa, May 6, 2016

1 The seeds of the kinds of plants set out in the schedule are specified to be weed seeds for the purposes of the Seeds Act .

Repeal

2 [Repeal]

Coming into Force

3 These Regulations come into force on November 1, 2016.

SCHEDULE (Section 1)

CLASS 1 Prohibited Noxious Weed Seeds

(Applicable to all tables of Schedule I to the Seeds Regulations )

Column 1 Column 2
Item Latin Name Common Name
1 Aegilops cylindrica Host Jointed goatgrass
2 Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. Slender foxtail
3 Bothriochloa ischaemum (L.) Keng Yellow bluestem
4 Bothriochloa laguroides (DC.) Herter Silver beardgrass
5 Centaurea diffusa Lam. Diffuse knapweed
6 Centaurea iberica Trevir. ex Spreng. Iberian starthistle
7 Centaurea solstitialis L. Yellow starthistle
8 Centaurea stoebe L. (= Centaurea maculosa Lam.) Spotted knapweed
9 Centaurea virgata Lam. subsp. squarrosa (Boiss.) Gugler Squarrose knapweed
10 Crupina vulgaris Cass. Common crupina
11 Cuscuta spp. Dodder
12 Echium plantagineum L. Paterson’s curse
13 Eriochloa villosa (Thunb.) Kunth Woolly cup grass
14 Halogeton glomeratus (M. Bieb.) Ledeb. Halogeton
15 Inula britannica L. British yellowhead
16 Milium vernale M. Bieb. Spring milletgrass
17 Nassella trichotoma (Nees) Hack. ex Arechav. Serrated tussock
18 Paspalum dilatatum Poir. Dallis grass
19 Peganum harmala L. African-rue
20 Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross Devil’s-tail tearthumb
21 Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. Kudzu
22 Senecio inaequidens DC. South African ragwort
23 Senecio madagascariensis Poir. Madagascar ragwort
24 Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. Silverleaf nightshade
25 Taeniatherum caput-medusae (L.) Nevski Medusahead rye
26 Zygophyllum fabago L. Syrian bean-caper

CLASS 2 Primary Noxious Weed Seeds

(Applicable to all tables of Schedule I to the Seeds Regulations )

Column 1 Column 2
Item Latin Name Common Name
1 Abutilon theophrasti Medik. Velvetleaf
2 Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) J.D.Sauer Tall water-hemp
3 Ambrosia trifida L. Giant ragweed
4 Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm. Cow parsley
5 Berteroa incana (L.) DC. Hoary alyssum
6 Carduus acanthoides L. Spiny plumeless thistle
7 Carduus nutans L. Nodding thistle
8 Cenchrus longispinus (Hack.) Fernald Long-spined sandbur
9 Chondrilla juncea L. Rush skeletonweed
10 Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. Canada thistle
11 Conium maculatum L. Poison hemlock
12 Convolvulus arvensis L. Field bindweed
13 Datura stramonium L. Jimsonweed
14 Elymus repens (L.) Gould Quackgrass (Couchgrass)
15 Euphorbia esula L. Leafy spurge
16 Galega officinalis L. Goat’s-rue
17 Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier & Levier Giant hogweed
18 Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden. Hogweed
19 Jacobaea vulgaris Gaertn. Tansy ragwort
20 Lepidium appelianum Al-Shehbaz (= Cardaria pubescens (C.A. Mey.) Jarm.) Globe-pod hoary cress
21 Lepidium chalepense L. (= Cardaria chalepensis (L.) Hand.-Mazz.) Lens-pod hoary cress
22 Lepidium draba L. subsp. draba (= Cardaria draba (L.) Desv.) Heart-pod hoary cress
23 Linaria dalmatica (L.) Mill. Dalmatian toadflax
24 Linaria genistifolia (L.) Mill. Broomleaf toadflax
25 Linaria repens (L.) Mill. Striped toadflax
26 Linaria vulgaris Mill. Yellow toadflax
27 Lythrum salicaria L. Purple loosestrife
28 Nicandra physalodes (L.) Gaertn. Apple of Peru
29 Odontites vernus (Bellardi) Dumort. subsp. serotinus (Dumort.) Corb. (= Odontites serotina Dumort.) Red bartsia
30 Raphanus raphanistrum L. Wild radish
31 Rhaponticum repens (L.) Hidalgo Russian knapweed
32 Setaria faberi R.A.W. Herrm. Giant foxtail
33 Solanum carolinense L. Horse nettle (Ball nettle)
34 Sonchus arvensis L. Perennial sow thistle
35 Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. Johnson grass
36 Tribulus terrestris L. Puncture vine

CLASS 3 Secondary Noxious Weed Seeds

(Applicable to all tables of Schedule I to the Seeds Regulations except Tables XIV and XV)

Column 1 Column 2
Item Latin Name Common Name
1 Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Common ragweed
2 Anthemis cotula L. Mayweed
3 Avena fatua L. Wild oat
4 Avena sterilis L. Sterile oat
5 Barbarea spp. Yellow rocket (Winter cress)
6 Bromus arvensis L. Field brome
7 Bromus japonicus Houtt. Japanese brome
8 Bromus secalinus L. Cheat
9 Bromus tectorum L. Downy brome
10 Daucus carota L. subsp. carota Wild carrot
11 Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O.E. Schulz Dog mustard
12 Galium aparine L. Cleavers
13 Galium mollugo L. False baby’s breath
14 Galium spurium L. False cleavers
15 Galium verrucosum Huds. Warty bedstraw
16 Lepidium campestre (L.) W.T. Aiton Field peppergrass
17 Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. (= Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L.) Ox-eye daisy
18 Lolium persicum Boiss. & Hohen. Persian darnel
19 Pastinaca sativa L. Wild parsnip
20 Plantago lanceolata L. Ribgrass
21 All Rumex species (except R. maritimus L. & R. acetosella L.) Dock
22 Silene latifolia Poir. subsp. alba (Mill.) Greuter & Burdet (= Silene pratensis (Rafn) Gord. & Gren.) White cockle
23 Silene noctiflora L. Night-flowering catchfly
24 Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke Bladder campion
25 Sinapis arvensis L. Wild mustard
26 Sisymbrium loeselii L. Tall hedge mustard
27 Thlaspi arvense L. Stinkweed
28 Tripleurospermum inodorum (L.) Sch.Bip. Scentless chamomile
29 Vaccaria hispanica (Mill.) Rauschert (= Saponaria vaccaria L.) Cow cockle

CLASS 4 Secondary Noxious Weed Seeds

(Applicable to Table XII of Schedule I to the Seeds Regulations )

The weed species named in Class 3 and in addition:

Column 1 Column 2
Item Latin Name Common Name
1 Cerastium spp. Chickweed
2 Digitaria spp. Crabgrass
3 Panicum spp. Panic grass
4 Prunella vulgaris L. Heal-all
5 Stellaria media (L.) Vill. Chickweed, common

CLASS 5 Noxious Weed Seeds

(Applicable to Tables XIV and XV of Schedule I to the Seeds Regulations )

The weed species named in Class 2 and in addition:

Column 1 Column 2
Item Latin Name Common Name
1 Cerastium spp. Chickweed
2 Digitaria spp. Crabgrass
3 Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. (= Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L.) Ox-eye daisy
4 Panicum spp. Panic grass
5 Prunella vulgaris L. Heal-all
6 Stellaria media (L.) Vill. Chickweed, common
7 Tripleurospermum inodorum (L.) Sch.Bip. Scentless chamomile

CLASS 6 Other Weed Seeds

Seeds of all other kinds or species of plants not listed as kinds or species in Schedule I to the Seeds Regulations .