Pineapple weed seeds

Pineappleweed (Matricaria discoidea)

Compiled by Melissa Graves, and Marjolein Schat, Montana State University from the following sources:

Identification and Life Cycle

Pineappleweed (Matricaria discoidea), also called disc mayweed, is an annual in the sunflower (Asteraceae) family. Mature pineappleweed is 3 to 12 inches high. The small, yellowish green flowers at the ends of stems do not have showy petals. The foliage of pineappleweed is finely divided and gives off a strong, pineapple odor when crushed. Seedlings have opposite, bright green, narrow leaves with a pair of lobes near the base. Later leaves are alternate and fern-like, several times divided into narrow, fingerlike lobes.

Habitats

Habitats include stony slopes of pastures, barnyards, edges of driveways and sidewalks, gravelly areas along railroads and roads, and sunny waste areas that are rocky or gravelly. Disturbed areas are strongly preferred.

Impacts

Pineappleweed occurs in cereal and broad-leaved arable crops. This species is also a frequent weed of intensive vegetable cropping systems.

Biology and Ecology

Pineappleweed typically flowers from June to September, but flowering can occur as late as November. Seed set begins in July, normally within 40-50 days of flowering. Seed production per plant can average from 850 to 7,000 seeds. Seed germination is determined by availability of light, with a small amount being sufficient. Seed sown in cultivated fields emerges between February and November, with peak germination periods from March to May and August to October. Plants emerging between January and April have a longer vegetative period prior to flowering than plants emerging from mid-May to mid-July. Plants emerging after August will typically overwinter as vegetative rosettes and will flower the following spring. Earlier flowering plants set seed and die before winter. Flowering of pineappleweed is determined by day length, with shorter days contributing to a delay in the flowering period.

Management Approaches

Biological Control

There are no biological control agents available for pineapple weed.

Mechanical and Cultural Control

Seedlings and larger plants should be controlled by cultivation to prevent seeding. Pineappleweed seedlings are more numerous on tine-cultivated or no-till land than ploughed land.

Chemical Control

There are a number of chemical control options for pineappleweed.

Examples of herbicides that can be used to manage pineappleweed

Consult herbicide labels for additional rate, application, and safety information. Additional herbicide information can be found at http://www.greenbook.net.

Herbicide Active Ingredient trade name Mode of Action Product per Acre Application Time or Growth Stage
Alfalfa
Diuron Group 7 (inhibition of photosystem II)
*Karmex XP less than 3 lbs/A Treat only vigorous, healthy stands of alfalfa that have been established for at least one full growing season. Do not apply to seedling alfalfa or alfalfa/grass mixtures. In alfalfa, this product may only be applied once a year and should not exceed 3 lbs/acre. See label for specific instructions for individual states.
Grass Grown for Seed
Dicamba Group 4 (synthetic auxins)
*Clarity 8 – 64 ounces/A Apply 8 – 16 fluid ounces per acre on seedling grass after the crop reaches the 3 – 5 leaf stage. Apply up to 64 fluid ounces on well-established perennial grass. For best performance, apply when weeds are in the 2 – 4 leaf stage.
Wheat
Chlorsulfuron; flucarbazone Group 2 (ALS inhibition) and Group 4 (synthetic auxins)
*Finesse 0.2 – 0.3 oz/A Apply preplant, or after planting, but before crop emergence.
Barley and Wheat
2,4-D; clopyralid Group 4 (synthetic auxins)
*Curtail 2 – 2.6 pts./A Apply in the spring to actively growing wheat or barley once 4 leaves have unfolded on the main stem and tillering has begun up to the jointing stage (first node of main stem detectable). Make application after maximum emergence of the target weeds but before they exceed 3 inches in height or diameter (for rosettes).
Rangeland and Permanent Grass Pastures
2,4-D; clopyralid Group 4 (synthetic auxins)
*Curtail 2 – 4 qts./A Apply when weeds are actively growing.

The information herein is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and that listing of commercial products, necessary to this guide, implies no endorsement by the authors or the Extension Services of Nebraska, Colorado, Wyoming or Montana. Criticism of products or equipment not listed is neither implied nor intended. Due to constantly changing labels, laws and regulations, the Extension Services can assume no liability for the suggested use of chemicals contained herein. Pesticides must be applied legally complying with all label directions and precautions on the pesticide container and any supplemental labeling and rules of state and federal pesticide regulatory agencies. State rules and regulations and special pesticide use allowances may vary from state to state: contact your State Department of Agriculture for the rules, regulations and allowances applicable in your state and locality. Updated Oct 2008

Pineapple weed seeds

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