Buku ghani seeds

Beneficial effects of low dose Musa paradisiaca on the semen quality of male Wistar rats

Address for correspondence: Dr. Gabriel O. Omotoso, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin, P.M.B. 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria. E-mail: [email protected]

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background:

This study aimed at determining the effects of administration of mature green fruits of Musa paradisiaca on the semen quality of adult male Wistar rats.

Materials and Methods:

The animals used for the study were grouped into three: the control group, given 2 ml of double distilled water, a low dose group given 500 mg/kg/day and a high dose group given 1000 mg/kg/day of the plantain fruits, which was made into flour, and dissolved in 2 ml of double distilled water for easy oral administration.

Results:

Significant increment in the semen parameters was noticed in animals that received a lower dose of the plantain flour, but those animals who received the high dose had marked and very significant reduction in sperm cell concentration and percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa.

Conclusion:

Musa paradisiaca should be consumed in moderate quantities in order to derive its beneficial effects of enhancing male reproductive functions.

INTRODUCTION

Musa paradisiaca (plantain) is a crop in the genus Musa and all members of the genus are indigenous to the tropical and subtropical countries. 1 ,2 It has been cultivated for more than 4000 years, and its several varieties are staple food in the tropical regions of the world. 3 Musa paradisiaca promotes healthy digestion, improves affective state, helps in the retention of and serves as good sources of potassium, calcium, phosphorus and nitrogen, which build and regenerate tissues in the body, and is also a rich source of iron and vitamins, especially Vitamins C and E. 1 – 3 Green plantain is also high in total dietary fibre content, especially hemicelluloses, which is higher than in most fruits and vegetables. 4 The high fibre contents, particularly insoluble fibre, can lower glycaemic response by forming a physical barrier to enzymatic hydrolysis of starch. The leaves, roots and fruits of plantain have been a revolutionary breakthrough in the management of male sexual inadequacies. 5 ,6

Infertility is a public health concern in many developing nations of the world due to its high prevalence and especially because of its serious social implications. 7 Infertility has social, economic and personal effects, which go beyond childlessness, and women bear the major brunt of the burden. 8 It is a major cause of marital disharmony and separation, and personal misery in some other population groups. 9 The highest prevalence is in low resource countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. 8 Male infertility can be caused by poor penile erection, abnormal sperm quality and volume, abnormal ejaculation, among other causes. Researches into natural diets like plantain showed that its consumption by men could enhance some reproductive functions, and also alleviate certain reproductive dysfunctions. 6 ,10 The aim of the current study, therefore, is to determine the effects of consumption of mature green plantain fruits on semen quality in normal adult Wistar rats.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The study was carried out in conformity with the rules and guidelines of the Animal Ethics Committee of the University of Ilorin. Eighteen (18) adult male Wistar rats of average weight of 200 g were obtained and maintained in the Animal House of the College of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin. The animals were kept at normal room temperature and food and water made available ad libitum. They were grouped into three, each group having six Wistar rats.

Preparation of the plantain flour

Green plantain fruits were obtained from a market in Ilorin, Nigeria. The fruits were cut longitudinally into chips of about 5 mm thickness and air-dried for 4 days after which they were grinded and made into flour. Two doses of the plantain flour were prepared: 500 mg/kg/day and 1000 mg/kg/day. The flour was dissolved in 2 ml of double distilled water, for easy administration.

Animal grouping

The animals were divided into three groups:

Group A: Control (2 ml double distilled water, p.o.)

Group B: Given low dose Musa paradisiaca (500 mg/kg/day, p.o.)

Group C: Given high dose Musa paradisiaca (1000 mg/kg/day, p.o.).

The treatment lasted for a period of 28 days. 10 ,11

Animal sacrifice

Twenty-four (24) hours after the 28 th day of treatment, the rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, and the testes and epididymis excised using a midline abdominal incision. The testes were immediately weighed and the left caudal epididymis transferred into sterile bottles containing 2 ml of normal saline for semen analysis.

Semen analysis: Sperm concentration

A modified method of Yokoi and Mayi 12 was adopted in counting the spermatozoa, with the aid of the new improved Neuber’s Counting Chamber (haemocytometer). About 10 μl of the diluted sperm suspension was transferred to each counting chamber of the haemocytometer and was allowed to stand for 5 min, and thereafter observed under a binocular light microscope. 12 ,13

Sperm motility

The fluid from the caudal epididymis was diluted with Tris buffer solution 14 to 0.5 ml. An aliquot of this solution was observed under the light microscope. The mean motility estimation was reported as the final motility score for each sample, and presented in percentages.

Sperm morphology

The morphology of the spermatozoa was determined using the original dilution for motility, diluted 1:20 with 10% neutral buffered formalin. The sperm cells were categorized based on the presence of one or more abnormal features, such as tail defects (short, irregular coiled or multiple tails); neck and middle piece defects (distended, irregular, bent middle piece, abnormally thin middle piece); and head defects (round head, small or large size, double or detached head). Findings were expressed as percentage of morphologically normal sperm. 15

Life–death ratio

Life-Death ratio was taken as, number of spermatozoa alive divided by total number of spermatozoa multiplied by 100. (No. of spermatozoa alive ÷ Total No. of spermatozoa) × 100

Statistical analysis

Data were analyzed statistically by application of Student’s t-test, using the SPSS version 15.0 software and presented as mean and standard error mean (SEM). Values of P < 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant.

RESULTS

The plantain flour was well tolerated, with no signs suggestive of regurgitations after oral administration. There was a relative gain in weight in the treated groups, and the weight gain was more in the group given the low dose Musa paradisiaca (Group B) with statistically significant difference (P < 0.05), while the weight gain recorded in the high dose group (Group C) was lower than in Group B (P > 0.05) [ Table 1 ].

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Table 1

Weights of rats and testes following administration of Musa paradisiaca

The semen parameters obtained in the treated groups showed statistically significant differences between the two groups given Musa paradisiaca (P < 0.05) [Table 2 and Figure 1 ]. The animals administered with low dose of Musa paradisiaca had a slight increase in sperm count, which was not statistically significant (P > 0.05), whereas a high dose of Musa paradisiaca resulted in a significantly decreased sperm concentration (P < 0.05) compared with the control group.

Table 2

Results of semen analysis

The percentage motility increased in Wistar rats given low dose of Musa paradisiaca, but decreased slightly in the high dose group (P > 0.05) compared with the control [ Table 2 ]. Administration of Musa paradisiaca caused reduction in the number of morphologically normal sperm, with a very marked reduction noticed in the high dose group (P < 0.05) compared with the control animals [Table 2 and Figure 1 ].

There was no significant difference in the Life-Death ratio between the control animals and the high dose group (P > 0.05), but in the low dose group, whereas there was a significant increase compared with the control (P < 0.05) [Table 2 and Figure 1 ]. Sperm progressivity was reduced in the high dose group, but the low dose group had forward directional movement almost similar to those of the control group [ Table 2 ].

DISCUSSION

Musa paradisiaca has been documented to have many beneficial effects in the management of several diseased conditions, including atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and thyroid dysfunctions 16 – 21 and also offers protective effects on organs of the body, such as the kidneys, in certain clinical conditions. 22 Yakubu et al. 6 reported that plantain fruits can be used in the management of sexual dysfunctions, though the exact mechanism of action or how it enhances this is not known. Similarly, studies conducted on methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca (MEMP) fruit 10 revealed that animal models with diabetic-induced testicular disorders can have the testicular damage reversed, when given MEMP. The precise mechanism of action by which MEMP does this is still unclear. Musa paradisiaca has hypoglycaemic effects in both normal and diabetic animal models, and this might be a reason for its ability to facilitate improvement in male sexual functions in diabetic animals. 10 ,20 ,23 ,24 This is true when the mature green fruit of plantain is consumed at a moderate dose, as revealed in the current study, where consumption of Musa paradisiaca at a low dose led to improvement in the quantity and quality of spermatozoa in adult Wistar rats. Specifically, sperm motility was improved, with a very significant increase in life/death ratio of spermatozoa, and a progressivity very similar to that of the control.

At a higher dose of plantain fruit, the percentage motility and Life/Death ratio did not significantly alter, but the forward directional movement was reduced when compared with the control. Nevertheless, motile abnormal sperm cells are not expected to perform the functions of successful fertilization, as do motile and morphologically normal sperm cells.

Conclusively, the mature green fruit of Musa paradisiaca improves semen parameters of Wistar rats at a moderate dose, making it a possible remedy for male reproductive dysfunctions in which sperm cells have been adversely impaired.

Footnotes

Source of Support: Nil

Conflict of Interest: None declared.

REFERENCES

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Articles from Nigerian Medical Journal : Journal of the Nigeria Medical Association are provided here courtesy of Wolters Kluwer — Medknow Publications

Seed vault jailbreak – genes gone wild

Contemplating changing up our germination schedule again.

A commercial grower just shared some test results with us yesterday and I’m waiting for them to send me the actual paperwork. According to them, our Vintage Pakistani tested at 15%THC/15%CBD for that awesome 1:1 ratio. I had a feeling the VP had CBD in it and glad they found it in the testing. Dread Bread came in a whopping 20%THC/23%CBD! Once I get the paperwork I’ll post the actual results here and in the Bodhi thread so folks know.

If this is the case, that we already have a couple high 1:1 ratio THC/CBD strains, we can delay running the Ethiopian Paintbrush & Huckleberry Web. Once we identify a few more high CBD cultivars, we will plan on doing a high CBD seed run for folks and give them out as freebies for the local community.

Now I think we’ll focus on finding more hard hitting strains, fast finishers, and running the pollen chucks to look for standouts.

The Mantis
Well-Known Member

Too Buku #22 here at 51 days in a 1 gallon pot under a Timber LED.

The Mantis
Well-Known Member

Can’t edit the post above, #161, but I got to see the results and they’re a little different, but still good.

Vintage Pakistani came in at 15%THC and only .06% CBD (.48% CBGa & .94 d9 THC) for 17.61% total cannabinoid
Dread Bread came in at 17.5% THC and only .06% CBD (.4 % CBGa & 1.08 d9 THC) for 20.44% total cannabinoid

So that means the high CBD ratio pheno hunt is back on Going to soak God’s Paintbrush next, which has the same dad as Dread Bread. Then onto Huckleberry Web.

The Mantis
Well-Known Member

Too Buku #26 at 51 days. Not the best pic, will try to get more in a few days before the karate chop.

MustangStudFarm
Well-Known Member

I thought that I would share my update. The clones have been in the Earthboxes for about 2 days now and the Grokashi started to make the mycelium mat already. I will then topdress it with crab, barley, and Malibu compost in that order. For the earthboxes, I cut HappyFrog in half with Promix(BX myco) and added EM1 and FPJ to the reservoir. Next step is to build a screen. The Duct tape is an eyesore, but they won’t be visible for long.

The Mantis
Well-Known Member

I thought that I would share my update. The clones have been in the Earthboxes for about 2 days now and the Grokashi started to make the mycelium mat already. I will then topdress it with crab, barley, and Malibu compost in that order. For the earthboxes, I cut HappyFrog in half with Promix(BX myco) and added EM1 and FPJ to the reservoir. Next step is to build a screen. The Duct tape is an eyesore, but they won’t be visible for long.
View attachment 4487440
View attachment 4487441

Pretty awesome! I swear this looks like my old setup. First thing I thought when I saw the pics is how cool it looks and they should jump up pretty quick. I would be worried about the black plastic getting too hot and would have used the white side up. But once you get a canopy the light won’t hit the plastic as much. Are you going to water into the tubes the whole grow?

Found an old pic:

btw – I had to scrap the plastic soil covers at some point because I started to get some powdery mildew. But I wasn’t using any growkashi stuff. That might help keep PM down but not sure.

The Mantis
Well-Known Member

Talking about popping old seeds. just saw this article where they popped 2000 year old seeds. Now I really feel like an idiot for not being able to pop 10 year old seeds lol. Pretty cool though it’s like going back in time with that plant.

Dates Like Jesus Ate? Scientists Revive Ancient Trees From 2,000-Year-Old Seeds

Researchers in Israel have grown date palm trees from ancient seeds found at the same site as the Dead Sea Scrolls. Those trees might soon produce fruit, re-creating the taste of antiquity.

The Mantis
Well-Known Member

We had a gender reveal party the other day on 4 of the last 5 remaining Strawberries & Cream f2s from Exotic Genetix. 3 came up pink and the last one was blue. Glad we have at least 3 females to flower out to see what the hype is all about. I have to say that 4 of the last 5 plants are all pretty weak/slow veggers compared to almost everything else. The clones will hopefully do better than the OGs (original plants from seed).

The Mantis
Well-Known Member

We had a gender reveal party the other day on 4 of the last 5 remaining Strawberries & Cream f2s from Exotic Genetix. 3 came up pink and the last one was blue. Glad we have at least 3 females to flower out to see what the hype is all about. I have to say that 4 of the last 5 plants are all pretty weak/slow veggers compared to almost everything else. The clones will hopefully do better than the OGs (original plants from seed).

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5 of the God’s Paintbrush have broken ground so far. One has 3 cotyledons + 3 bladed leaves. Pretty cool.

Just dropped the Huckleberry Web beans in water yesterday. About to sow them later today. I have to say, Dynasty wins the best packaging contest. Don’t stare at it too long or it will give you flashbacks.

Next up: Goat Fuel (Sannie’s Jack x Kandahar Afghan)
TK x Iraqi
King 91X (King’s Banner XIII x ’91 Christmas)

The Mantis
Well-Known Member

Jar of some Too Buku #26 that was just harvested in our “home grow” suggested setup. All the TB26 tops get that pointy tip. Smells are very unique and hard to pinpoint. Like a sour/citrus smell on top of a pina colada and some sandlewood in there. High is a fun go do stuff high but it can lead to couch lock if smoked at night or if you smoke too much. f2s on these will be an interesting trip.

@MustangStudFarm – how are all the plants doing since transplant? They all catch on yet?

MustangStudFarm
Well-Known Member

Man, they look great. I’ve been busy building a worm farm in my backyard. I’ve been digging up tree stumps with a shovel and axe, so I’m sitting here sore lol. I’ve been talking with my wife and a worm farm just sounded like a really good idea because I was trying to buy in bulk locally and I couldn’t find any. The market looks wide open for a worm farmer in our area. I was seriously ready to spend over $600 on a cubic yard of castings, but I couldn’t get any of these local guys to respond to my bulk order. My plants look great really, but my lights just went out. I’ll take pics tonight when my lights come back on.

The Mantis
Well-Known Member

Man, they look great. I’ve been busy building a worm farm in my backyard. I’ve been digging up tree stumps with a shovel and axe, so I’m sitting here sore lol. I’ve been talking with my wife and a worm farm just sounded like a really good idea because I was trying to buy in bulk locally and I couldn’t find any. The market looks wide open for a worm farmer in our area. I was seriously ready to spend over $600 on a cubic yard of castings, but I couldn’t get any of these local guys to respond to my bulk order. My plants look great really, but my lights just went out. I’ll take pics tonight when my lights come back on.

Sounds like a lot of good hard work. Good thinking on the worm farm. Making your own is so easy and less wasteful. I mean how many pounds of food scraps, let alone coffee grinds do I throw away each year? More than enough for the worms to much on. Glad to hear the plants are looking good.

MustangStudFarm
Well-Known Member

Sounds like a lot of good hard work. Good thinking on the worm farm. Making your own is so easy and less wasteful. I mean how many pounds of food scraps, let alone coffee grinds do I throw away each year? More than enough for the worms to much on. Glad to hear the plants are looking good.

My new worm bin is going to hold over 540 gallons or 2.67 cubic yards. I left enough room to expand too. I’ll take pics after I finish building it, it shouldn’t take too much longer. Anyways, I put these in Earthboxes on Feb 21st and most of them have taken off.

MustangStudFarm
Well-Known Member
The Mantis
Well-Known Member

My new worm bin is going to hold over 540 gallons or 2.67 cubic yards. I left enough room to expand too. I’ll take pics after I finish building it, it shouldn’t take too much longer. Anyways, I put these in Earthboxes on Feb 21st and most of them have taken off.
View attachment 4499748
View attachment 4499749

Looking really good. All nice bushy growth. You might need to change your name to “The Worm Guy” or something with all those worms lol. Sounds like an epic worm garden. Will yours have a 2 chamber deal to allow the black soldier flies (bsf)?

MustangStudFarm
Well-Known Member

Looking really good. All nice bushy growth. You might need to change your name to “The Worm Guy” or something with all those worms lol. Sounds like an epic worm garden. Will yours have a 2 chamber deal to allow the black soldier flies (bsf)?

BSF show up on their own and I always welcome them. They eat and compost faster than worms. Plus, they are not as picky of eaters. I bought my rock dust in bulk and I have 4 different kinds: Basalt, Azomite, Greensand, and Oyster shell flour. All of these trees that I am cutting down would make great biochar and I will start making a charcoal retort after I finish my bin. I think that a worm farm would do really well in Oklahoma if the EWC was made the right way.

The Mantis
Well-Known Member

God’s Paintbrush didn’t germ that great and we only got 6 of the 12 to sprout.
4 out of 7 of the Goat Fuel sprouted.
10 of 12 of the Huckleberry Web sprouted.
3 of 3 of the Monk Juice v1 sprouted.
7 King 91X (King’s Banner XIII #8 x ’91 Christmas) in the steam room.

The TK x Iraqis are taking a few laps in the pool right now and have a date with the steam room tonight. We were chatting the other day about the TK and how many breeders are using it and how many of the HYPE strains have the TK in them. You would think TK would get played out but it seems to change up so much depending on the dad. This Iraqi dad I think might be one of the best stable genetics-wise. Really hope to find a nice male from this line. Def going to f2.

Next up is:
Grey Area (Too Buku #26 x Big Sur Holy Weed)
Granny Skunk
Kandahar 91X (Kandahar Afghan x ’91 Christmas)
Purple Star

Will try to get a few pics up soon of the Strawberry showdown going on. All about 4 weeks flowering:
3 x Strawberries & Cream f2s – one of them is super frosty at 4 weeks and stands out. all have a Captain Crunch berry in cereal smell
5 x Strawberry Cough – all looking/smelling similar. smells like a fresh strawberry just picked off the plant
3 x Strawberry Goji – one is super frosty and stands out. All smell like a strawberry syrup.