Benefits of bishop’s weed seeds

Medicinal benefits of Ajwain | Bishop’s weed

To treat and prevent the diseases use of seed spices have a long history. It is confirmed by many studies that seed spices can be useful medicines, but how to provide scientific evidence and plausible mechanisms for their therapeutic responses is still a major challenge. Therapeutic potential of seed spices to treat multiple symptoms of the metabolic syndrome such as diabetes, obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and altered lipid profile.

Oxidative stress and inflammation have been proposed as initiators of the metabolic syndrome, which prevalent and has become an important financial burden to the healthcare mechanisms in both developing and developed countries.

Natural constituents with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties are present in seed spices. Proper doses of these compounds may be effective in curing the metabolic syndrome. Spices have been known for ages as effective therapeutic food. The power of spices to impart biological activity is now slowly reemerging as an area of interest for human health. Dietary choice remains the basis for maintaining a healthy lifestyle and well-being, despite remarkable advances in medicine and pharmaceutical drug development.

Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague is a Greek work Trachy= rough and spermum= seeded, whereas ammi is name of plant in Latin. Syn. Carum copticum, commonly known as Ajwain and Bishop’s weed (English name) belonging to family Apiaceae or Umbelliferae. The plant has a similarity to parsley. Because of their seed-like appearance, the fruit pods are sometimes called seeds; they are egg-shaped and grayish in colour.

It is an erect, aromatic, glabrous or minutely pubescent, branched annual with striate stem, white flowers, up to 90 cm height and the plant is native of Egypt and is cultivated in India, Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iraq. In India it is cultivated in Utter Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal. The flower and the fruit are bearing on the plants in the month from January to April. Its fruits or seeds contain 2% to 4% brown color essential oil known as ajwain oil, with thymol as the main constituent (35% to 60%) which is a strong germicide, antispasmodic, antifungal, antimicrobial and also used in perfumery and toothpaste industry.

Medicinal Uses

The entire Ajwain plant is very beneficial for health and medicinal aspects. Ajwain seeds, fruits, leaves, and oil are used for medicinal purposes.

Instant Remedy for Stomachache

It has alcoholic qualities in a very mild form; therefore, it may be used as instant stomach pain. Ajwain+small quantity of salt, when sip with warm water is quite beneficial for indigestion and stomach pain. The person suffering from indigestion and anorexia, 1 tsp of Ajwain seed may be taken along with food.

Ajwain for Asthma

Inhalation of the smoke of Ajwain acts as bronchodialator and makes the breathing pattern easier. The person suffering from Asthma may take the paste of Ajwain + Jaggery, 1 tsp, twice a day. This mixture is helpful in asthma treatment.

Prevents Cold

For chronic and recurrent cold, it is recommended to take fried seeds of ajwain in the dose of 2 g for 15–20 days. Inhaling of its grind seed is also beneficial in case of headache, migraine, and cold and cough.[4] Chewing Ajwain seeds with lukewarm water is also a good cure for Cough. Ajwain helps in clearing nasal blockage by discharging the mucus easily. Ajwain powder taken in a clean cloth if inhaled frequently cures a migraine headache.

Analgesic and Antinociceptive Effects

In order to evaluate the analgesic and antinociceptive activity of Ajwain, an In vivo investigation was carried out using a Tail-flick Analgesiometer Device. The study revealed that the ethanolic extract significantly increase in Tail-Flick Latency (TFL) within 2 hours post-drug administration. An experimental trial study has also been carried out to compare the antinociceptive effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of Ajwain with morphine sulphate using formalin test. Findings revealed that Ajwain extract exhibited antinociceptive effect on both early and late phases. Similar study has been done on the Ajwain total essential oil which was significantly effective on the late phase of formalin test and it may be due to the presence of thymol in essential oil.

In addition, under a randomized controlled placebo control clinical trial, the herb essential oil was assayed for the analgesic effect in neuropathic feet burn. Results revealed that Ajwain essential oil significantly reduced the feet burn compared to placebo.

Gastro protective activity

Ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi) seed menifest anti-ulcer activity. Animals pre-treated with ethanolic extract exhibit remarkable decrease in ulcer protection per cent and ulcer index in all models. The findings inferred that the extract showed significant protection by reducing ulcerative lesions when compared with control group of animals.

Hepatoprotective activity

The results revealed that hepatoprotective actions in vivo of ajwain was 80% protective in mice against a normally-lethal dose of paracetamol (1 g kg–1), it prevented the CCl4¯ induced prolongation of pentobarbital sleeping time in mice and it tended to normalize the high serum levels of liver enzymes caused by CCl4¯ induced liver damage in rats.

Anti-inflammatory effects

The ajwain fruits have observed anti-inflammatory potentials against rat models (Carageenan induced rat paw oedema) and subacute rat model (Cotton pellet induced granulluma) they used aspirin 150mg/Kg and Phenyl butazone 150mg/Kg as control. In the acute model, Aspirin and Phenyl Butazone (PBZ) showed an inhibition of 45.23% and 43.83% respectively.

Detoxification of aflatoxins

The seeds extract of trachyspermum ammi reflect the maximum degradation of aflatoxin G1 (AFG1). The aflatoxin detoxifying activity was reduced on boiling the fruits or seeds. It is also observed that significant level of degradation of other aflatoxin viz., AFB1, AFB2 by dialyzed seeds extract. Time course study of AFG1 detoxification by dialyzed T. ammi extract showed that more than 91% degradationoccurred at 24 hours and 78% degradation occurred within 6hours after incubation.

Lessen Greying of Hairs

Ajwain helps in lessening premature graying of hairs. Cook curry leaves + dry grapes + ajwain in a cup of water and drinks the mixture every day to prevent pre maturation of hairs.

Relief from Arthritis Pain

Ajwain has antibiotic properties, thus helping in reducing redness and combat inflammation. They also have anesthetic properties that give relief from pain and swelling. Apply the paste of crushed ajwain seeds to joints or soak in a tub of warm water with the hand full of ajwain seeds in it to get relief.

Dissolves Kidney Stone

Ajwain when mixed with honey and vinegar and used for 10 days, dissolves kidney stones that ultimately remove with urine. Ajwain water treats intestinal pains caused due to indigestion and also gets rid of liver and kidney malfunctions.

Helps in Treating Irregular Mensus and Menstrual Cramps

Drinking Oma water helps in curing problems of indigestion for pregnant women by cleaning the uterus and also solves the issues of irregular periods. Oma water is prepared by boiling 2 spoons of roasted Ajwain in water. Carom seeds work as a nerve tonic and are used to relax nerves during menses, decreasing menstrual cramps. You can also apply carom seed oil on the lower abdomen to get relief.

Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities

To assay the antibacterial efficacy of Ajwain, acetone and aqueous extracts were tested against Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseu-domonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella typhi-murium, Shigella flexneri, and Staphylococcus aureus using agar diffusion assay. The study showed that acetone extract shows more activity compared to the aqueous extract.

In another study, ethanolic extract of Ajwain possessed antibacterial activity against eight strains of Helicobacter pylori. Also methanolic extract of Ajwain exhibited bactericidal activity against 11 species at 2mg/well in agar well-diffusion method. It was measured by Diameter of Inhibition Zones (DIZ). DIZ was over 15mm against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis; 10–14 mm against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus pumilus; 7–9 mm against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia as well as Bordetella bronchiseptica. On the other hand, no activity was reported against Pseudomonas fluorescens and Micrococcus luteus. As Ajwain may have large amounts of Thymol or Carvacrol in its total essential oil, mentioned phenolic compounds are reported to be either bactericidal or bacteriostatic agents depending on the concentration.

In order to assess the antifungal activity of Ajwain, total essential oil extracted from seeds was subjected for fungicidal effect and showed proper effect on Aspergillus niger and Curvularia ovoidea at 5000 ppm as minimum inhibitory concentration

Antioxidant activity

The seeds of ajwain exhibited antioxidant activity by using ABTS and DPPH assay methods, ferric reducing antioxidant power and total phenolic content. The ethanolic extract of T. ammi shows activity against hexachloro cyclohexane (HCH) induced lipid peroxidation.

Antihypertensive and broncho-dilating property

The antihypertensive effect of Trachyspermum ammi administered intravenously in vivo and the antispasmodic and broncho-dilating actions. In vitro showed that calcium channel blockade has been found to mediate the spasmolytic effects of plant materials and it is being considered that this mechanism contributed to their observed result and supported the traditional use of Trachyspermum ammi in hyperactive disease states of the gut such as colic and diarrhea as well as in hypertension

Hypolipidemic action

In albino rats antihyperlipidemic effect of ajwain seed has been obtained. It was assessed that powder made by ajwain seed at a dose rate of 2 g kg–1 body weight and its equivalent methanol extract were extensively effective in lipid lowering action by decreased LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides and total lipids

Abortifacient and galactogogic action

There is a high risk of potential human foetus toxicity of ajwain, based on teratogenicity find in rat fetuses. It has been traditionally used as a galactogogue in humans. The total phytoestrogen content of dry ajwain seed or fruits was 473ppm, which was the second highest in the list of eight herbs tested.

Ajwain or Bishop’s weed or carom seeds are the best things to have ever happened to humankind, especially to those of us who suffer from digestive problems on a regular basis. They have a slew of benefits apart from just curing an upset stomach. It is very useful for many health and medicinal purposes. Ajwain water is an effective ayurvedic marvel against many diseases and disorders. Ajwain water is given to small babies having colic and gas related problems. It is one of the best home remedies.

Bishop’s Weed

Ajava Seeds, Ajowan, Ajowan Caraway, Ajowan Seed, Ajowanj, Ajwain, Ajwan, Ameo Bastardo, Ammi Commun, Ammi Élevé, Ammi glaucifolium, Ammi Inodore, Ammi majus, Ammi Officinal, Bishop’s Flower, Bisnague, Bullwort, Carum, Espuma del Mar, Flowering Ammi, Grand Ammi, Omum, Yavani.


Bishop’s weed is a plant. The seeds are used to make medicine.

The prescription drug methoxsalen (Oxsoralen, Methoxypsoralen) was originally prepared from bishop’s weed, but it is now made in the laboratory. Methoxsalen is used to treat psoriasis, a skin condition.

Bishop’s weed is used for digestive disorders, asthma, chest pain (angina), kidney stones, and fluid retention.

Some people apply bishop’s weed directly to the skin for skin conditions including psoriasis and vitiligo.

Be careful not to confuse bishop’s weed (Ammi majus) with its more commonly used relative, khella (Ammi visnaga). The two species do contain some of the same chemicals and have some similar effects in the body. But Bishop’s weed is more commonly used for skin conditions, and khella is usually used for heart and lung conditions.

How does it work?

Bishop’s weed contains several chemicals, including methoxsalen, a chemical used to make a prescription medication for the skin condition psoriasis.


Uses & Effectiveness

Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for.
  • Skin conditions such as psoriasis and vitiligo.
  • Digestive problems.
  • Asthma.
  • Chest pain.
  • Kidney stones.
  • Fluid retention.
  • Other conditions.

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).

Side Effects

There isn’t enough information to know if bishop’s weed is safe. When taken by mouth, bishop’s weed might cause nausea, vomiting, and headache. Some people are allergic to bishop’s weed. They can get a runny nose, rash, or hives. There is also some concern that bishop’s weed might harm the liver or the retina of the eye.

Bishop’s weed can cause skin to become extra sensitive to the sun. This might put you at greater risk for skin cancer. Wear sunblock outside, especially if you are light-skinned.


Special Precautions & Warnings

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: It’s UNSAFE to use bishop’s weed if you are pregnant. It contains a chemical called khellin that can cause the uterus to contract, and this might threaten the pregnancy.

It’s also best to avoid using bishop’s weed if you are breast-feeding. There isn’t enough information to know whether it is safe for a nursing infant.

Liver disease: There is some evidence that bishop’s weed might make liver disease worse.

Surgery: Bishop’s weed might slow blood clotting. There is a concern that it might increase the risk of bleeding during and after surgery. Stop using bishop’s weed at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.


Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 [CYP3A4] substrates)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Bishop’s weed might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking bishop’s weed along with some medications that are broken down by the liver can increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking bishop’s weed, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some medications changed by the liver include lovastatin (Mevacor), ketoconazole (Nizoral), itraconazole (Sporanox), fexofenadine (Allegra), triazolam (Halcion), and many others.

Medications that can harm the liver (Hepatotoxic drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Bishop’s weed might harm the liver. Taking bishop’s weed along with medication that might also harm the liver can increase the risk of liver damage. Do not take bishop’s weed if you are taking a medication that can harm the liver.

Some medications that can harm the liver include acetaminophen (Tylenol and others), amiodarone (Cordarone), carbamazepine (Tegretol), isoniazid (INH), methotrexate (Rheumatrex), methyldopa (Aldomet), fluconazole (Diflucan), itraconazole (Sporanox), erythromycin (Erythrocin, Ilosone, others), phenytoin (Dilantin), lovastatin (Mevacor), pravastatin (Pravachol), simvastatin (Zocor), and many others.

Medications that increase sensitivity to sunlight (Photosensitizing drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Some medications can increase sensitivity to sunlight. Bishop’s weed might also increase your sensitivity to sunlight. Taking bishop’s weed along with medication that increases sensitivity to sunlight could increase the chances of sunburn, blistering, or rashes on areas of skin exposed to sunlight. Be sure to wear sunblock and protective clothing when spending time in the sun.

Some drugs that cause photosensitivity include amitriptyline (Elavil), Ciprofloxacin (Cipro), norfloxacin (Noroxin), lomefloxacin (Maxaquin), ofloxacin (Floxin), levofloxacin (Levaquin), sparfloxacin (Zagam), gatifloxacin (Tequin), moxifloxacin (Avelox), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (Septra), tetracycline, methoxsalen (8-methoxypsoralen, 8-MOP, Oxsoralen), and Trioxsalen (Trisoralen).

Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant/Antiplatelet drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Bishop’s weed might slow blood clotting. Taking bishop’s weed along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.

Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.


The appropriate dose of bishop’s weed depends on several factors such as the user’s age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for bishop’s weed. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration

You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.

Health Solutions From Our Sponsors

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EL MOFTY, A. M. Observations on the use of Ammi majus Linn. In vitiligo. Br J Dermatol 1952;64(12):431-441. View abstract.

EL MOFTY, A. M., el Sawalhy, H., and el Mofty, M. Clinical study of a new preparation of 8-methoxypsoralen in photochemotherapy. Int J Dermatol 1994;33(8):588-592. View abstract.

Kavli, G. and Volden, G. Phytophotodermatitis. Photodermatol. 1984;1(2):65-75. View abstract.

Singh, U. P., Singh, D. P., Maurya, S., Maheshwari, R., Singh, M., Dubey, R. S., and Singh, R. B. Investigation on the phenolics of some spices having pharmacotherapeuthic properties. J Herb.Pharmacother. 2004;4(4):27-42. View abstract.

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Ahsan SK, Tariq M, Ageel AM, et al. Effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum and Ammi majus on calcium oxalate urolithiasis in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 1989;26:249-54. View abstract.

Bethea D, Fullmer B, Syed S, et al. Psoralen photobiology and photochemotherapy: 50 years of science and medicine. J Dermatol Sci 1999;19:78-88. View abstract.

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Benefits of bishop’s weed seeds

Bishop’s Weed which is also known as Goutweed, is one of the most dangerous plants that a gardener can grow in his backyard. A bishop’s weed is a vertical, glabrous or minutely juvenile, pronged annual plant. The stems are straight, the leaves are fairly isolated, 2-3-pinnately separated and the segments are linear. The flowers come about in terminal or seemingly-sideways pedunculate, compound umbels, white and little, the fruits are ovoid, muricate, sweet-smelling cremocarps, grayish brown in color, the mericarps, which are the elements of the fruit, are squashed, with discrete ridges and tubular surface and is one- seeded.

Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague is the scientific botanical name of the plant. In common languages of India as in Hindi it is called as Ajwain; in Bengali it it is called as Jowan or Joan; in Gujarati it is called as Yavan; in Kannada it is called as Oma; in Kashmiri it is called as Jawind; in Malayalam it is called as Omum; in Marathi it is called as Onva; in Oriya it is called as Juani; in Punjabi it is called as Ajamoda, Avanika; in Sanskrit it is called as Ajamoda, Avanika; in Tamil it is called as Omum; in Telugu it is called as Vamu; in Urdu it is called as Ajowain.

Bishop’s weed plant has emerged to have been a botanically famous plant during the central ages in Europe helping both equally as a pot aromatic plant and as a cure against gout which is why it was popularly named as goutweed. At that point of time, bishop’s weed had a lasting place in basic gardens along with further exceptional plants, but these days it is found appealingly much all over the places in Europe and it is known to be insidious in some parts of North America.

The juvenile leaves are characteristically harvested in the spring season and is eaten as salads or, when picked later in the same season, it is cooked like with our favorite green vegetables. The blooms and the small fruits can also be eaten because all mentioned parts are packed with a healthy grouping of vitamins, minerals and protein.The plant is mainly rich in potassium, calcium, zinc, and vitamin A and vitamin C. Bishop’s weed has a preference of wet and shady places. It has a tendency to broaden through its extensive rhizomes, hence it is typically found in colonies of different sizes. One of its familiar German name is Geißfuß or goat’s foot, which seems to precisely describe the exceptional shape of the leaves. Ajwain instigated in the Middle East, maybe in Egypt and the Indian Subcontinent, but also in Egypt, Iran and Afghanistan. In India, the chief Ajwain producing states are Rajasthan and Gujarat, where Rajasthan harvests about 90% of India’s total manufacture.

The produce of bishop’s weed capitulates 2-4% of brownish essential oil, with thymol as the chief constituent which is produced from 35% to 60%. It forms crystals easily and is sold in India’s markets as flowers of Ajowan. The non-thymol product IE thymine formed, contains para-cymene, dipentene, a-terpinene, γ-terpinene, a- and ß-pinenes and carvacrol. Small amounts of caphene, myrcene, and a-3-carene have also been found in the plant. Alcoholic extorts of bishop’s weed contain a greatly hygroscopic saponin. From the fruits, a yellow colored, crystalline flavored and a steroid resembling substance has been secluded.

The seed of the plant also restrains 6-O-ß-glucopyranosyloxythymol, a glucoside. Some other chemical research hs reported 69% carvacrol in T. ammi , and a succumb of 25% oleoresin containing 12% volatile oil constituting thymol, γ-terpinene, para-cymene, and a- and ß-pinene. The primary oil constitutes of carvone to about 46%, limonene to about 38%, and dillapiole to about 9%. The essential oil attained by steam distillation process of the fruits of the copticum yielded thymol of 61%, para-cymene of 15%, and γ-terpinene of 12%.

The Bishop’s weed has a wide range of medicinal uses that may be as follows:

    As a digestive aid by chewing it in raw form or with a small amount of sugar to make it more edible in its raw form.